Institute for Aerospace Studies
Institute for Aerospace Studies
News Article | May 4, 2017
TORONTO, ON--(Marketwired - May 04, 2017) - After collecting over 4.3 million Automatic Dependent Surveillance - Broadcast (ADS-B) messages from aircraft since it launched in September 2016, the 3.5 kilogram 10x10x34cm CanX-7 nanosatellite deployed its four drag sails yesterday evening. CanX-7 was built by Space Flight Laboratory (SFL) at the University of Toronto Institute for Aerospace Studies (UTIAS). Each drag sail has an area of approximately one square meter. The sails are intended to decrease the ballistic coefficient of the satellite and use atmospheric drag to accelerate orbital decay. The drag sail technology is important for nano- and microsatellites whose low Earth orbital presence would exceed the Inter-Agency Space Debris Coordination Committee (IADC) guidelines that limit such presence to 25 years after end of mission. "With SFL's innovative drag sail technology verified on orbit, the door is opened to using this technology on future missions where compliance to IADC guidelines would not otherwise be possible," says Robert Zee, Director of SFL. "Such compliance is essential to ensuring that space debris is mitigated for the world. It is also a critical component in satisfying regulatory bodies so that small satellite missions may proceed uninhibited." CanX-7 completed a seven-month campaign to collect ADS-B messages from aircraft to demonstrate Canada's first ADS-B data collection from space. With that phase of the mission successfully completed, the drag sails were deployed to begin the second phase of the mission. The sequential phases were intended to emulate an operational mission followed by deorbiting. A key component in the drag sail technology demonstration was long-term stowage of the drag sail modules in space without interrupting or affecting the operational mission. "We want our drag sail technology to be compact and non-intrusive to a satellite's main mission. This will ensure wide acceptance and easy adoption by future microsatellite missions," says Zee. "The four drag sails were deployed across the two passes this evening (two sails per pass)," reported Brad Cotten, CanX-7 Project Manager on May 3. "All telemetry is nominal and indicates that each sail is fully deployed. The deployment was also confirmed optically from the ground." During this final phase of the CanX-7 mission, the deorbiting process will be closely monitored via the SFL ground station in Toronto. Orbital decay rate will be determined and compared against pre-launch simulation results. "We are thankful to our sponsors that helped make this mission successful for the benefit of Canada and the world, including Defence R&D Canada - Ottawa, the Natural Sciences and Engineering Council of Canada, COM DEV, Royal Military College of Canada, and the Canadian Space Agency," said Zee. SFL builds big performance into smaller, lower cost satellites. Small satellites built by SFL consistently push the performance envelope and disrupt the traditional cost paradigm. Satellites are built with advanced power systems, stringent attitude control and high-volume data capacity that are striking relative to the budget. SFL arranges launches globally and maintains a mission control center accessing ground stations worldwide. The pioneering and barrier breaking work of SFL is a key enabler to tomorrow's cost aggressive satellite constellations.
News Article | May 17, 2017
TORONTO, ON--(Marketwired - May 17, 2017) - The Space Flight Laboratory (SFL) of Toronto announced today the signing of a new contract to provide Dubai-based Mohammed Bin Rashid Space Centre (MBRSC) with a microsatellite for aerosol and greenhouse gas monitoring. SFL's Next-generation Earth Monitoring and Observation (NEMO) platform technology, which incorporates high-performance ground target tracking capability, is a key enabler for the mission. The DMSat-1 (also known as "AirWatch") satellite will leverage past developments at SFL for a rapidly developed mission that will incorporate two payloads. The primary payload is a multispectral polarimeter used to monitor aerosols -- fine particles of liquid and solids in the upper atmosphere normally caused by man-made sources, but also correlating to natural phenomena such as dust storms. The secondary instrument is a pair of spectrometers that will enable MBRSC to detect greenhouse gases like carbon dioxide and methane over the United Arab Emirates. The study of aerosols and greenhouse gases will be conducted by researchers local to the UAE. "We are pleased that the Mohammed Bin Rashid Space Centre has selected SFL as their spacecraft provider for this important mission," remarked Dr. Robert Zee, Director, SFL. "We look forward to fruitful collaboration with MBRSC and this exciting mission that will benefit the UAE for years to come." In previous missions, the SFL NEMO bus has demonstrated precise attitude control and target tracking capabilities -- rare among satellite platforms of this size -- that will play a key role in the accurate pointing of the DMSat-1 sensors. SFL, based at the University of Toronto Institute for Aerospace Studies (UTIAS), will highlight its nearly 20-year history of developing successful small satellite missions at the 2017 CANSEC Conference being held May 31 - June 1 in Ottawa. Visit SFL in booth 1036 at the EY Centre. About Space Flight Laboratory (SFL) SFL builds big performance into smaller, lower cost satellites. Small satellites built by SFL consistently push the performance envelope and disrupt the traditional cost paradigm. Satellites are built with advanced power systems, stringent attitude control and high-volume data capacity that are striking relative to the budget. SFL arranges launches globally and maintains a mission control center accessing ground stations worldwide. The pioneering and barrier breaking work of SFL is a key enabler to tomorrow's cost aggressive satellite constellations. (www.utias-sfl.net). About the Mohammed Bin Rashid Space Centre (MBRSC) The Mohammed bin Rashid Space Centre (MBRSC) is integral to the strategic initiative put in place by the Dubai government to inspire scientific innovation, technological advancement, and to advance sustainable development in the UAE. The centre was originally established in 2006 as the Emirates Institution for Advanced Science & Technology (EIAST), until the Mohammed bin Rashid Space Centre (MBRSC) was established in 2015 by Sheikh Mohammed bin Rashid. MBRSC's vision is to build a sustainable space science and technology sector and contribute to the establishment of a knowledge-based national economy by launching quality projects and creating a new generation of national pioneers and scientists in order to lead our country towards a promising future. MBRSC is committed to social, economic and environmental sustainability, and we work alongside the community on a number of projects, and within schools and universities across the UAE. Visit http://mbrsc.ae/en.
News Article | February 24, 2017
Daisy Intelligence Corporation, an artificial intelligence software-as-a-service platform, announced today that they will be offering a total of $30,000 in scholarship support for students in the Engineering Science program at the University of Toronto’s Faculty of Applied Science & Engineering. The new Daisy Intelligence Scholarships in Engineering Science will be awarded each year to three students completing their fourth year of study in each of the program’s Electrical and Computer Engineering, Robotics, and Mathematics, Statistics & Finance majors. Three scholarships will be awarded each year based on academic achievement and each recipient will receive a $2,000 Daisy Scholarship. The Engineering Science program at the University of Toronto is one of the most distinguished engineering programs in the world and attracts top students who are looking for an academic challenge. This enriched program is widely regarded as an innovator in engineering education and provides students with excellent preparation in a wide range of engineering, science and mathematical fields. Historically, about half of the program’s graduates pursue post-graduate studies at top graduate schools around the world. “As a U of T Engineering Science alumnus, I wanted to recognize student achievement in one of the best engineering programs in the world. This program is critical to keeping Canada on the leading edge of artificial intelligence and critical to maintaining Canada’s global competitiveness. I am so happy we can do our part in recognizing these high academic achievers in this important program.” said Gary Saarenvirta, CEO of Daisy Intelligence. “This is our first year awarding the Daisy Intelligence Scholarships in Engineering Science and we intend to continue this to help the university recruit and retain the best and brightest students.” Saarenvirta received his undergraduate degree in 1988 and holds both his B.A.Sc. and M.A.Sc. degrees in Aerospace Engineering from the University of Toronto. His M.A.Sc. was in Computational Fluid Dynamics at the University of Toronto’s Institute for Aerospace Studies. The Daisy Intelligence Scholarships in Engineering Science recipients are those who attained academic excellence in their fourth year of study. Christina Heidorn External Relations Officer, Division of Engineering Science Faculty of Applied Science and Engineering, University of Toronto engsci(at)ecf.utoronto.ca 416.978.8634
News Article | January 26, 2016
Home > Press > Deep Space Industries teams with UTIAS Space Flight Laboratory to demonstrate autonomous spacecraft maneuvering: SFL and DSI demonstrate enabling technology for low-cost asteroid missions and constellations Abstract: The worlds first demonstration of autonomous spacecraft maneuvering was recently completed by Silicon Valley-based Deep Space Industries (DSI) and the Space Flight Laboratory (SFL) of Toronto, Canada. Using their highly-successful CanX-4 and CanX-5 pair of nanosatellites, SFL operators executed a DSI-defined experiment on-orbit, in which the worlds first spacecraft-to-spacecraft orbit maneuver was commanded by one satellite and executed by the other. In this experiment, one of the two spacecraft (CanX-4) autonomously programmed the other (CanX-5) to perform an orbit change using its on-board propulsion system, over a shared S-band Inter-Satellite Link (ISL) radio. CanX-5 subsequently executed the maneuver, raising its orbit, as confirmed by operators at SFLs Mission Control Center (MCC) in Toronto and data from the Joint Space Operations Center (JSpOC) at Vandenberg Air Force Base. To the best of each organizations knowledge, this is the first time in history that one satellite has autonomously commanded another to execute propulsive maneuvers, with no operator in the loop. This experiment was a key demonstration of a critical capability for multi-spacecraft asteroid missions, as well as constellations of spacecraft in Earth orbit, said Grant Bonin, DSIs Chief Engineer. It was also a first step in demonstrating ship-to-shore command relay in-space, which could potentially reduce the difficulty of communicating with very small spacecraft at long range. The experiment was an important risk reduction exercise for DSI, which intends to use small spacecraft for initial asteroid prospecting missions in the next five years, Bonin continued. The ability to relay commands from spacecraft to spacecraft, and perform in-space maneuvers autonomously, without operator intervention, is a critical capability that has major implications for mission-level redundancynot just for asteroid missions, but also for low-cost Earth orbit constellations. This also shows that, if necessary, we can take the operator entirely out of the loop during a mission, which can translate into significant savings. Deep Space Industries partner, the Space Flight Laboratory at the University of Toronto Institute for Aerospace Studies (UTIAS), challenges the current state-of-the-art in space technology performance while achieving remarkably low cost without sacrificing quality or introducing risk. In an age where significant advances have been made in data processing and information technology, SFL strives to leverage the latest advances in commercial technologies to provide performance advantage in space for tomorrows space-based data users. The organizations high rate of success and distinguished legacy of being on the forefront of space technology make the team a great fit for partnering with Deep Space Industries. Teaming with a satellite provider like SFL is a big win for us, said DSI CEO Daniel Faber. DSIs philosophy is to partner with other organizations whenever it makes sense, in a way that maximizes complementary capabilities. Having a partner like SFL allows us to tap into almost 20 years of heritage, experience, and capabilities, while giving DSI the capacity to focus on key elements of its own roadmap, by leveraging already well-honed skill sets that exist elsewhere. We are very pleased to have contributed to DSIs objectives through the tasking of CanX-4 and CanX-5. SFL welcomes the opportunity to partner with DSI, and we see great potential in such collaboration, noted Dr. Robert Zee, Director of SFL. For SFL, it is an opportunity to apply our heritage and experience in an emerging application area, one that can potentially revolutionize humanitys use of deep space. SFL recognizes the pioneering work of DSI and their talented team, and looks forward to future projects with DSI." Bonin concluded: Technologies such as launch-safe high-performance propulsion systems, long-range, high-data-rate communications, and autonomous spacecraft relative navigation are at the core of DSIs current technology development efforts. By combining our enabling technologies with the excellent satellite platforms being offered by SFL, DSI can provide innovative, reliable and robust systems for a wide range of customers and mission types, both in Low Earth Orbit and beyond. This work is the first project in what both organizations expect to be a long-term strategic relationship to bring cutting-edge, low-cost space technologies and missions to market, while also enabling low-cost asteroid missions. About Deep Space Industries (DSI) Deep Space Industries is an international space resources company, utilizing the most advanced nanosat technologies to realize asteroid mining. To learn more about DSIs asteroid mining projects, innovative technology, or world-renowned team of experts, please visit: DeepSpaceIndustries.com. For more information, please click If you have a comment, please us. Issuers of news releases, not 7th Wave, Inc. or Nanotechnology Now, are solely responsible for the accuracy of the content.
News Article | November 28, 2015
A Montreal company announced its nanosatellite called, CLAIRE, surpassed its final test and is scheduled to launch in April 2016. This tiny satellite is designed to monitor greenhouse gas emissions in several sites around the world. This innovative satellite aims to battle climate change. It will soon provide a way to gauge gas emissions from industrial facilities from all over the world. GHGSat will monitor carbon emissions from facilities like companies involving mining, oil, gas, and power generation. "All systems go! This milestone is the culmination of two years of intense effort by a team of Canadian engineers and scientists. GHGSat is bringing technological innovation in the aerospace industry to the fight against climate change," Stéphane Germain, President of GHGSat, said. Developed for two years, the satellite has been dubbed as an affordable way for companies to measure how much gas emissions specifically carbon dioxide and methane industrial facilities produce each year. This will help companies to implement policies in the reduction of gas emissions that contribute to global warming and harm the environment. "Given the way the orbital dynamics work, it will take about two weeks for CLAIRE to see any point on the Earth, and then return to see that same point on the Earth. What that means is, we can measure any point on the surface of the Earth, every two weeks, with a single satellite," Germain explained. Several companies joined the effort in developing the satellite including Xiphos Technologies, Space Flight Laboratory at the University of Toronto's Institute for Aerospace Studies, and MPB Communications. Also, Boeing Company helped with GHGSat's development with its expertise in engineering and spacecraft design. To maximize the utilization of the satellite, the company created a crowdfunding campaign in Kickstarter. This will pave way for the satellite to be used in its full potential and it will fund demonstrations globally. This will help companies in many parts of the world to be 'convinced of out technology's benefits'. "We founded our whole business on the concept that if there is value in a tonne of carbon, then the producers are going to be motivated to reduce their emissions," Germain added.
News Article | April 27, 2016
Swiss pilot Bertrand Piccard made headlines on Saturday when he glided a solar-powered plane onto Moffett Airfield in California after a three-day journey across the Pacific Ocean. It’s the most recent stop in an around-the-world trip that began in Abu Dhabi last spring and is intended to raise awareness about the importance of reducing carbon emissions through the use of clean energy. The plane itself, “Solar Impulse 2,” is a true zero-fuel aircraft, powered by more than 17,000 solar cells. It’s designed to carry just one pilot — Piccard and his colleague André Borschberg have been tag-teaming the journey around the world — and has the wingspan of a jumbo jet, although it weighs only two tons. The daring trans-Pacific flight has drawn global interest to the concept of electric planes, which have existed in various forms for several decades now. Some designs rely on solar cells, while others use various types of batteries, but the overall goal is the same: to achieve flight with minimal or no fuel burning. Electric aircraft are among the more ambitious technologies being researched around the world in an effort to reduce carbon emissions from aviation. It’s a cause that’s rapidly gaining international attention. Aviation is currently responsible for about 1 percent of all the world’s carbon emissions — and as air traffic is expected to experience rapid growth in the coming decades, that proportion could quickly climb if no steps are taken to improve the fuel efficiency of aircraft. Some estimates have suggested that by 2020, emissions from aviation could be 70 percent higher than they were in 2005. To that end, the UN’s International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) proposed the world’s first carbon dioxide emissions standards for aircraft back in February. And while some environmentalists have argued that the proposal did not go far enough, the action has placed aircraft emissions on the international radar — and scientists around the world are researching ways to reduce them. Electric flight, however, may be among the technologies that are furthest from becoming practical. So far, most of the electric planes that have achieved flight have only been able to accommodate one or two people, and it will likely be at least a decade or two before the technology will progress to the point that it’s commercially viable. “The big challenge is the batteries,” said David Zingg, director of the University of Toronto’s Institute for Aerospace Studies. For electric planes to become competitive, their power sources need to be able to store more energy per unit mass — otherwise, their speed and weight capacities will remain impractically low. “You can imagine in 20 years you can have an aircraft the size of a 737 that’s electric — but you can’t be sure,” Zingg said. “That all depends on battery technology.” For smaller aircraft, the technology may even be able to work its way into the market within the next 10 years, said Sean Clarke, co-principal investigator on a NASA project called Sceptor, which is working on an experimental electric propulsion-powered aircraft. But in the meantime, there are plenty of other alternatives being explored that could start cutting emissions far sooner. In March, United Airlines became the first American airline to use renewable fuel for commercial operations when it began using biofuel in flights between Los Angeles and San Francisco. However, others may be following suit soon. Both Southwest Airlines and FedEx, for example, also have contracts with biofuel producers that will allow them to start buying renewable jet fuel for future use. The basic idea behind renewable fuels is to use biological sources — usually plant or sometimes animal matter — instead of oil. Many biofuel companies have developed “drop-in” fuels that are designed to work safely in existing jet engines — usually requiring mixing with traditional fuels — making them an easy way to cut down on carbon emissions without requiring costly mechanical alterations. But there are some cons to consider. When biofuels first started to become competitive, there was concern that they were competing with food growers for agricultural land — an issue that’s become more salient as concern heightens over the planet’s rapidly growing population and the future of global food security. As a result, producers are increasingly focusing on fuel sources that can be grown on land that’s unsuitable for food crops. Additionally, Zingg pointed out, “there’s a ton of work to be done to make the processing efficient enough that it’s cost efficient compared to fossil fuels.” Making physical design changes to planes is another way of increasing fuel efficiency. Finding ways to reduce the drag on aircraft in flight is one important research area, Zingg said — for example, redesigning wings to improve the way air flows over the plane. NASA has focused a great deal of research on these types of design challenges in recent years. It’s Environmentally Responsible Aviation project, which took place between 2009 and 2015, focused on solutions that would cut down on noise, pollution and carbon output and included research on more efficient engines, lighter-weight aircraft materials and new body designs. At least one of the resulting technologies — a new, more aerodynamic design for airplane wing flaps — is already on its way to becoming commercialized, according to the agency. Other design research is ongoing. The Sceptor project, for example, which Clarke is helping to lead, is working to design a smaller, more aerodynamic and efficient wing than would normally be possible by equipping it with electric motors to help energize the flow that generates lift on the plane. But it’s not necessarily all about the technology, Zingg added. Even the way air traffic controllers guide planes can make a difference. Adopting procedures that allow for smooth, continuous descents rather than forcing planes to fly in inefficient landing patterns can help reduce carbon output. Similarly, an imaginative idea known as “formation flight” could be helpful as well, he noted — this is a concept in which planes fly in bird-like formations that take advantage of airflow and reduce drag. In the end, integrating many carbon-cutting ideas together is likely to give the best shot at making a difference in aviation emissions, according to Zingg. There are plenty of concepts already commercially practical now — and one day, even solar-powered planes may join the mix. “There’s a huge range of different things that can be done — the most important thing is to try to do them all,” he said. “Individually, they might have a modest benefit…but if you add them all up you can make a pretty big improvement.”
Leung T.M.,University of Toronto |
Leung T.M.,Institute for Aerospace Studies |
Zingg D.W.,University of Toronto
AIAA Journal | Year: 2012
A Newton-Krylov algorithm for aerodynamic shape optimization in three dimensions is presented for both singlepoint and multipoint optimization. An inexact Newton method is used to solve the Euler equations, a discrete adjoint method is used to compute the gradient, and an optimizer based on a quasi-Newton method is used to find the optimal geometry. The flexible generalized minimal residual method is used with approximate Schur preconditioning to solve both the flow equation and the adjoint equation. The wing geometry is parameterized by B-spline surfaces, and a fast algebraic algorithm is used for grid movement at each iteration. An effective strategy is presented to enable simultaneous optimization of planform variables and section shapes. Optimization results are presented with up to 225 design variables to demonstrate the capabilities and efficiency of the approach. Copyright © 2011 by the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Inc. All rights reserved.
Mader C.A.,University of Toronto |
Mader C.A.,Institute for Aerospace Studies |
Martins J.R.R.A.,University of Michigan
AIAA Journal | Year: 2011
This paper presents a method for the computation of the static and dynamic stability derivatives of arbitrary aircraft configurations. Three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics are used in this method to simulate the flow characteristics around the configuration, and a moving-grid formulation is included in the flow solver to handle the rotational physics necessary for the computation of the dynamic derivatives. To obtain the stability derivatives, the computational fluid dynamics code is differentiated using the automatic differentiation adjoint (ADjoint) approach. This approach enables the efficient and accurate computation of derivatives for a wide variety of variables, including the dynamic model states that are typical of the stability derivatives. To demonstrate the effectiveness of this approach, stability derivatives are computed for a NACA 0012 airfoil and an ONERA M6 wing. Copyright © 2011 by the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Inc.
News Article | September 15, 2016
For many people, the name "Diamondback" brings BMX and mountain bikes to mind. In fact, though, the company has been expanding into the world of high-end road bikes in recent years. This week at the Ironman World Championships in Kona, Hawaii, that expansion is culminating in the unveiling of the Andean – reportedly the world's fastest triathlon bike. It will be ridden by Olympian and multiple-time Ironman winner Michael Weiss. The Andean has been in development for the past two years. It was created in partnership with Kevin Quan Studios utilizing wind tunnel testing facilities at the University of Toronto Institute for Aerospace Studies, where it is claimed to have outperformed all other "competitive models." As can be seen, its carbon fiber frame is quite … big. Known as an "Aero Core," this airfoil design is intended to minimize drag, as air passes relatively unimpeded from the front wheel, along either side, and off the back wheel. The idea is to fill up the empty space between the two wheels, minimizing turbulence. There are also plenty of places to store things. Integrated compartments on top can carry three water bottles, three energy bars and 10 gel packets, while a lidded cubby hole located in front of the cranks holds roadside tools and a spare tube. Oh yes, and there's also a place behind the seat post, where the rider can stash their wallet. Should you be interested in getting one, the Andean is available now for pre-order in five builds. The base model, which features a SRAM Force X1 drivetrain and HED Ardennes Plus wheels, is priced at US$4,779.99. At the other end of the scale, a version equipped with a Shimano Dura-Ace Di2 drivetrain, Dura-Ace hydraulic disc brakes and HED Jet Black 9 wheels will set you back $8,069.99. Weight will vary with the component mix, although one of the mid-range builds is said to tip the scales at 20.5 lb (9.3 kg). Sales will be by direct order only (so don't go looking for one in the stores), with deliveries expected to begin at the end of next January. You can see the bike in motion, in the video below.
News Article | March 2, 2017
TORONTO, ON--(Marketwired - March 02, 2017) - Space Flight Laboratory (SFL), a provider of complete microspace missions based at the University of Toronto Institute for Aerospace Studies (UTIAS), has been contracted by GHGSat Inc. of Montreal to develop the GHGSat-C1 and C2 greenhouse gas monitoring satellites. SFL will release details of the operational GHGSat microsatellite mission next week at the Satellite 2017 Conference in Washington, D.C. "SFL is a world-class bus manufacturer with nearly two decades of experience developing and launching small satellites," said Stephane Germain, President and CEO of GHGSat Inc. "Working with SFL was a natural fit because we share a common microspace philosophy and culture important to us as we get our satellites launched efficiently and quickly." Established in 1998, SFL specializes in implementing high-performance nano-, micro- and small-satellite missions at low cost on tight schedules. SFL served as prime integration contractor for the successful GHGSat-D demonstration satellite, known as CLAIRE, launched in June 2016. CLAIRE is a 15-kilogram, 20x30x40cm microsat based on SFL's space-proven Next-generation Earth Monitoring and Observation (NEMO) platform. "GHGSat-D demonstrated that greenhouse gas emissions from point sources, such as power plants and industrial sites, can be accurately targeted and measured from space," said Dr. Robert E. Zee, SFL Director. "The precise attitude control and target tracking capability of our NEMO bus -- rare among satellite platforms of this size -- played a key role in the accurate pointing of the primary CLAIRE sensor." SFL has begun development of the GHGSat-C1 and C2 satellites at its Toronto facility with planned launches in late 2018 and early 2019, respectively. Serving as GHGSat's first two commercially operating satellites, they will be identical to each other but contain incremental, yet significant, enhancements from the demonstration mission. SFL's NEMO platform has been used on several other missions, including the NORSAT-1 and NORSAT-2 built for Norway by SFL for science, advanced ship tracking, and ship communication. The NEMO bus is also utilized in the upcoming HawkEye360 Pathfinder missions under development by SFL and Deep Space Industries of California. SFL will release additional details on GHGSat and other upcoming SFL launches in booth #130 at the 2017 Satellite Conference and Exhibition (#SatShow) being held March 6-9 at the Walter E. Washington Convention Center in Washington, D.C. For conference details, visit http://2017.satshow.com/. SFL builds big performance into smaller, lower cost satellites. Small satellites built by SFL consistently push the performance envelope and disrupt the traditional cost paradigm. Satellites are built with advanced power systems, stringent attitude control and high-volume data capacity that are striking relative to the budget. SFL arranges launches globally and maintains a mission control center accessing ground stations worldwide. The pioneering and barrier breaking work of SFL is a key enabler to tomorrow's cost aggressive satellite constellations.