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Bunzli J.-C.G.,Korea University | Bunzli J.-C.G.,Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne | Eliseeva S.V.,CNRS Center for Molecular Biophysics | Eliseeva S.V.,Institute for Advanced Studies
Chemical Science | Year: 2013

The enthralling properties of lanthanide luminescence have propelled luminescent probes, tags and materials based on these elements to the forefront of science and technology. In this minireview, attention is focused on the latest innovations and on less-known aspects of this field. Exciting new developments in bioimaging, therapy, drug delivery, security tags, luminescent sensors, and solar energy conversion are highlighted. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry. Source


Luong B.T.,Institute for Advanced Studies | Ruggieri S.,University of Pisa | Turini F.,University of Pisa
Proceedings of the ACM SIGKDD International Conference on Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining | Year: 2011

With the support of the legally-grounded methodology of situation testing, we tackle the problems of discrimination discovery and prevention from a dataset of historical decisions by adopting a variant of k-NN classification. A tuple is labeled as discriminated if we can observe a significant difference of treatment among its neighbors belonging to a protected-by-law group and its neighbors not belonging to it. Discrimination discovery boils down to extracting a classification model from the labeled tuples. Discrimination prevention is tackled by changing the decision value for tuples labeled as discriminated before training a classifier. The approach of this paper overcomes legal weaknesses and technical limitations of existing proposals. Copyright 2011 ACM. Source


Lazzerini B.,University of Pisa | Mkrtchyan L.,Institute for Advanced Studies
IEEE Systems Journal | Year: 2011

One of the challenges in Risk Analysis and Management (RAM) is identifying the relationships between risk factors and risks. The complexity of the method to analyze these relationships, the time to complete the analysis, the robustness and trustworthiness of the method are important features to be considered. In this paper, we propose using Extended Fuzzy Cognitive Maps (E-FCMs) to analyze the relationships between risk factors and risks, and adopting a pessimistic approach to assess the overall risk of a system or a project. E-FCMs are suggested by Hagiwara to represent causal relationships more naturally. The main differences between E-FCMs and conventional Fuzzy Cognitive Maps (FCMs) are the following: E-FCMs have nonlinear membership functions, conditional weights, and time delay weights. Therefore E-FCMs are suitable for risk analysis as all features of E-FCMs are more informative and can fit the needs of Risk Analysis. In this paper we suggest a framework to analyze risks using E-FCMs and extend E-FCMs themselves by introducing a special graphical representation for risk analysis. We also suggest a framework for group decision making using E-FCMs. Particularly, we explore the Software Project Management (SPM) and discuss risk analysis of SPM applying E-FCMs. © 2010 IEEE. Source


Sigalas E.,Institute for Advanced Studies
Space Policy | Year: 2012

This paper investigates the role of the European Parliament (EP) in the development of the space policy of the EU (EUSP), an important policy area that has been neglected in the political science and EU studies literature. EUSP is the offspring of the European space policy which started as a purely intergovernmental affair, but gradually acquired a supranational dimension. Although the EP did little to initiate this process, it always supported the involvement of the EU in space, and it used both its formal and informal powers to affect and promote its development. Under the consultation procedure the EP managed to become a conditional agenda setter, and under co-decision an influential legislation maker. The changes it introduced in the European global navigation satellite and Earth observation programmes relate not only to the inter-institutional balance and its controlling powers, but to a series of substantive issues also. Consequently, the activism of the EP has played an important part in the development of the EUSP, even if it was not the main force behind its inception. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source


De Lima M.S.F.,Institute for Advanced Studies | Sankare S.,IREPA LASER
Materials and Design | Year: 2014

Laser additive manufacturing of stainless steels is a promising process for near net shape fabrication of parts requiring good mechanical and corrosion properties with a minimal waste generation. This work focuses on high aspect ratio AISI 316 steel structures made by superposition of sequential layers. A special nozzle for precise powder delivery together with a monomode fiber laser allowed producing high quality steel stringers on AISI 316 steel substrates. Although the stringers average compositions were inside the austenite plus ferrite range, only austenite phase was verified. The cladded structure presented some internal pores and cracks, responsible by the low Young's moduli. However, the tensile properties were similar to the base material and other literature results. The three-point flexural tests also produced good results in terms of formability. The fabricated structures proved to be useful for use in mechanical construction. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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