Swain B.,Institute for Advanced Engineering
Separation and Purification Technology | Year: 2017
Projected demands for lithium as LIB for the plug-in hybrid electric (PHEV), electric (EV) and hybrid electric (HEV) vehicle in the recent future is huge and estimated to reach $221 billion by 2024. Currently, 35% of global lithium production being used for LIBs and consumption for estimated LIB demand could be 66% (out of global lithium production) by 2025. During last five (2011–2015) years, global lithium production is almost constant. At present, up to 3% of LIBs are recycled with the only focus of valuable metal recovery, but motivation on lithium recovery almost nonexistence. The global rate of lithium recycling is only < 1%. Considering the current global lithium production with respect to projected demand, environment and regulation, green energy and energy security, cradle-to-cradle technology management and circular economy of critical metal and minimization of waste crime and maximization of the urban mining, recovery and recycling status of lithium should be well understood. In this review recovery of lithium from various resources such as different ores, clay, brine, seawater and recycling of battery by different technique are reviewed. Lithium recovery from various primary resources and its separation purification by different routes such as hydrometallurgy, pyro-metallurgy, chemical metallurgy, and bioleaching are discussed. Lithium recovery through chemical leaching, bioleaching, and floatation of different ores also thoroughly reviewed. The extraction of lithium from seawater by co-precipitation and extraction, ion-exchange and sorption by using various organic, inorganic and composite polymer sorbents has been discussed thoroughly. Although, several industries recovering lithium from primary resources, but lithium recovery from secondary resources almost non-existence. The non-existence of lithium recovery process from LIB or techno-economically inefficient process is a greater challenge for the projected lithium demand. As the cradle-to-grave technology is a sustainability challenge, cradle-to-cradle technology management could be achieved through efficient recycling. Hence, techno-economically feasible, environment-friendly and sustainable process needs to be developed and recommended. Considering technological advantages of hydrometallurgy process like; smaller scale, minimal energy investment, minimal CO2 emission, and the plant can be designed based on available waste, lithium recovery by hydrometallurgy should be focused. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.
Uhm S.,Institute for Advanced Engineering |
Kim Y.D.,Sungkyunkwan University
Current Applied Physics | Year: 2014
Carbon dioxide is one of the greatest concerns worldwide, since it is not only a major greenhouse gas but also expected to be an important, sustainable resource for fuels and chemicals. The electrochemical conversion of carbon dioxide, based on solid electrolyte membrane reactors, has the promise to overcome the limitations of the conventional catalytic reactors such as the limited conversion and kinetics, relatively low selectivity and high energy consumption. In this review, electrocatalysts and solid oxide electrolytes, both proton and oxide ion conductors as core materials in an electrochemical ceramic membrane reactor have been reviewed and particular emphasis is placed on their application to synthesize carbon monoxide and hydrogen. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Kim M.J.,Institute for Advanced Engineering |
Lee D.B.,Sungkyunkwan University
Metals and Materials International | Year: 2013
Fe-(4.8, 9.2, 14.3)wt%Al alloys were corroded at 700 and 800 C for up to 70 h in 1 atm of N2/H2O and N2/H 2O/H2S gases. Oxidation prevailed in N2/H 2O gases. Fe-(4.8, 9.2)Al alloys formed a duplex scale that consisted of an outer iron oxide layer and an inner (Fe, Al, O)-mixed layer. The Fe-14.3Al alloy formed a thin layer consisting of α-Al2O 3. Sulfidation dominated in N2/H2O/H 2S gases, resulting in rapid corrosion. Fe-(4.8, 9.2)Al alloys formed a duplex scale that consisted of an outer FeS layer and an inner (Fe, Al, S, O)-mixed layer. The high growth rate of FeS impeded the formation of a continuous, protective aluminium-rich oxide. The Fe-14.3Al alloy formed a thin layer consisting of α-Al2O3 that was incorporated with a bit of sulfur. © 2013 The Korean Institute of Metals and Materials and Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.
Lee J.S.,Yeungnam University |
Han G.B.,Institute for Advanced Engineering |
Kang M.,Yeungnam University
Energy | Year: 2012
This study investigated the application of a new metal catalytic species, Sn ion, rather than conventional Ni-based catalyst, to hydrogen production from ESR (ethanol steam reforming). Mesoporous SBA-15 catalysts with various contents of incorporated Sn (Sn-SBA-15) exhibited significantly higher ESR reactivity and the highest reactivity was achieved with 20 mol% Sn-SBA-15 catalysts: the H 2 production and ethanol conversion were maximized at 75% and 92%, respectively, at a mild temperature of 500 °C for 1 h at a CH 3CH 2OH:H 2O ratio of 1:1 and a GHSV (gas hourly space velocity) of 6600 h -1. The XRD (X-ray diffraction) and XPS (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) results indicated that the incorporated Sn species, SnO 2/Sn, was simultaneously transferred to Sn/SnO 2 by alternating their redox reactions and that the reactivity of the Sn-based activity could be long-lasting. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.
Park S.H.,Korean University of Science and Technology |
Park S.H.,Institute for Advanced Engineering |
Lee Y.D.,Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials |
Ahn K.Y.,Korean University of Science and Technology |
Ahn K.Y.,Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials
International Journal of Hydrogen Energy | Year: 2014
A novel SOFC hybrid system is proposed and evaluated relative to its thermodynamic efficiency and economy. The proposed system combines an SOFC stack with an HCCI-type internal combustion engine; the HCCI engine replaces a conventional combustor, simultaneously burns the anode off-gas, and produces additional power. To calculate the efficiency of the suggested system, each component and the overall system have been thermodynamically modeled. The levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) has been calculated and economically assessed. For quantitative comparison and evaluation, a simple SOFC system and an SOFC/GT hybrid system are designed. Consequently, the proposed hybrid system shows the efficiency 59.5%, which is 7.8% and 0.9% higher efficiency than those of the SOFC simple system and the SOFC/GT hybrid system, respectively. And the system exhibits the LCOE $0.23/kWh, that is 12.9% and 7.6% reduced LCOE compared with the other two reference cases. Copyright © 2013, Hydrogen Energy Publications, LLC. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Swain B.,Institute for Advanced Engineering
Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology | Year: 2016
Separation and purification of lithium by solvent extraction and supported liquid membrane using various commercial and non-commercial extraction has been reviewed. In solvent extraction, extraction by chelating extractants, acidic extractants, solvation extractants and mechanism involved in the extraction has been discussed. Solvent extraction of lithium by solvation extractants like; TOPO, DBM, TBP, and LIX and synergism of diketone with various solvation extractant combinations have been reviewed. Finally, lithium extraction by supported liquid membrane using various extractants has been reviewed. The reported processes mainly lacking in analysis of chemical mechanism involved in the lithium extraction using all these extractants are analyzed and discussed. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
Institute For Advanced Engineering | Date: 2012-10-17
Disclose is a method for preparing a cathode material for a lithium secondary battery, the method comprising the steps of: preparing an amorphous silicon oxide; using the prepared silicon oxide as a starting material; and milling the amorphous silicon oxide, a lithium silicon oxide and a transition metal silicon oxide at a predetermined ratio, drying the milled material, and heat-treating the dried material in an atmosphere of inert gas, thereby preparing a lithium transition metal silicon oxide.
Hong H.S.,Institute for Advanced Engineering |
Lee S.,Institute for Advanced Engineering
Journal of Alloys and Compounds | Year: 2012
Ni/Cu/YSZ cermet (volume ratio of Ni:Cu:YSZ = 40:20:40) is more electronically conductive than the conventional Ni/YSZ cermet for high temperature electrolysis (HTE) of water vapor and it was successfully fabricated by high-energy ball-milling of nickel, copper, and YSZ powders, pressing into pellets (O 10 mm × 1 mm) and subsequent sintering process at 900 °C under flowing 5%-H 2/Ar gas. The Ni/Cu/YSZ composite material thus fabricated was characterized using various analytical tools such as SEM, XRD, and laser diffraction and scattering method. Electrical conductivity of sintered Ni/Cu/YSZ cermet pellets fabricated was measured by using 4-probe technique for comparison with that of conventional Ni/YSZ cermet. The effect of ball-milling time on electrical conductivity and microstructure of Ni/Cu/YSZ cermets for HTE was investigated. The particle size of Ni/Cu/YSZ decreased while electrical conductivity increased with milling time: enhanced electrical conductivity is attributed to well-connected Ni/Cu/YSZ particles rendered by increased ball-milling time. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Institute For Advanced Engineering | Date: 2013-04-26
The present invention relates to a cylindrical non-melt and partial melt type entrained flow bed gasifier with one or more burners mounted on the top thereof for supplying pulverized raw coal and oxidizer thereto, wherein each of the burners comprises three or four pipes so as to form a central supplying line for injecting the pulverized coal with a carrier gas into the gasifier, a primary oxidizer annular region around the central supplying line having a plurality of primary oxidizer supplying bores for injecting primary oxidizer vertically or at an angle to the injection region of the pulverized coal supplied through the central supplying line so as to direct the pulverized coal to the central region, and an outer cooling annular region around the primary oxidizer annular region for flowing cooling water, which is operated preferably at a temperature range of 1,2501,450 C., or of 1,1501,500 C. according to the properties of the coal. According to the present invention, the pulverized coal and oxidizer are properly mixed, and the pulverized coal is directed towards the middle of the gasifier, so that the reaction is completed with the ash being wholly non-melted or partially melted.
Institute For Advanced Engineering | Date: 2015-03-11
The present invention relates to a cylindrical non-melt and partial melt type entrained flow bed gasifier with one or more burners mounted on the top thereof for supplying pulverized raw coal and oxidizer thereto, wherein each of the burners comprises three or four pipes so as to form a central supplying line for injecting the pulverized coal with a carrier gas into the gasifier, a primary oxidizer annular region around the central supplying line having a plurality of primary oxidizer supplying bores for injecting primary oxidizer vertically or at an angle to the injection region of the pulverized coal supplied through the central supplying line so as to direct the pulverized coal to the central region, and an outer cooling annular region around the primary oxidizer annular region for flowing cooling water, which is operated preferably at a temperature range of 1,2501,450C, or of 1,1501,500C according to the properties of the coal. According to the present invention, the pulverized coal and oxidizer are properly mixed, and the pulverized coal is directed towards the middle of the gasifier, so that the reaction is completed with the ash being wholly non-melted or partially melted.