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Alberto P.L.,University of Buenos Aires | Alberto P.L.,Institute Fisiopatologia y Bioquimica Clinica | Margarita A.,University of Buenos Aires | Margarita A.,Institute Fisiopatologia y Bioquimica Clinica
Journal of Cytology | Year: 2014

Background: Urine excreted by the body has a variable composition in different physiological and pathological conditions. The cells that come from the renal pelvis, ureters, bladder, and urethra are carried by the urine, and therefore, they can be observed in fresh samples and in smears with Giemsa and Papanicolaou stain. Aim: The aim of this study was to show that high correlation that exists between the cytological examination of fresh urine samples and smears stained with Papanicolaou and Giemsa methods. Materials and Methods: A total of 45 cases with no tumor of the urinary tract and 36 patients with lower urinary tract neoplasms were included in the study (20: Low-grade urothelial tumors; 16: High-grade urothelial tumors, squamous carcinomas, and adenocarcinomas). The sediments in the urine samples were observed in fresh specimen and in smears stained with Papanicolaou method. Results: The meticulous observation of fresh urinary sediments allowed identification of diverse cellular types associated with varied pathologies. Conclusions: The cytological examination of urinary samples in fresh smears, and its later diagnostic confirmation with the Papanicolaou stain is important not only as a diagnostic procedure of tumoral or non-tumoral pathologies, but also as a method for the ′screening′ of pre-cancerous lesions or carcinoma in situ, especially in high-risk populations.

Almuzara M.,Institute Fisiopatologia y Bioquimica Clinica | Limansky A.,CONICET | Ballerini V.,CONICET | Galanternik L.,Laboratorio Of Bacteriologia | And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents | Year: 2010

In this study, we analysed the antimicrobial susceptibility of 92 strains of Achromobacter spp. isolated from clinical samples to 18 antimicrobial agents. The disk diffusion method and Etest were compared with the agar dilution method, and the breakpoints of susceptibility and resistance for the disk diffusion method for the antimicrobials tested were determined. The most active antibiotics were piperacillin, piperacillin/tazobactam and the carbapenems. By applying the linear least-squares regression method, breakpoints could be established for antibiotics active against this genus such as imipenem, meropenem, ertapenem and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (SXT). Other active antibiotics, such as piperacillin and minocycline, could be tested by the Etest method. The less active antibiotics such as gentamicin, doxycycline and tetracycline could be tested by the disk diffusion method. For the rest of the antimicrobial agents tested, breakpoints could not be established owing to the high percentage of errors and/or the poor linear regression coefficient obtained. Therefore, these antimicrobial agents should be tested by minimal inhibitory concentration determination. In summary, we recommend the following zone diameter breakpoints for resistant and susceptible, respectively: ≤11 mm and ≥22 mm for imipenem; ≤13 mm and ≥24 mm for meropenem; ≤17 mm and ≥24 mm for ertapenem; ≤15 mm and ≥21 mm for gentamicin; ≤27 mm and ≥28 mm for SXT; ≤20 mm and ≥29 mm for tetracycline; and ≤20 mm and ≥24 mm for doxycycline. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. and the International Society of Chemotherapy.

Almuzara M.N.,Institute Fisiopatologia y Bioquimica Clinica | Almuzara M.N.,National University of General San Martin | Palombarani S.,National University of General San Martin | Tuduri A.,National University of General San Martin | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Microbiology | Year: 2011

We report the first case of fulminant sepsis due to Wohlfahrtiimonas chitiniclastica. This case is also the first one reported in South America. We emphasize the importance of recognizing bacteria that live in the larvae of a parasitic fly as the causative agent of severe infections in homeless patients. Copyright © 2011, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

Almuzara M.,Institute Fisiopatologia y Bioquimica Clinica | Barberis C.,Institute Fisiopatologia y Bioquimica Clinica | Bravo M.,University of Buenos Aires | Pisarevsky A.,University of Buenos Aires | And 4 more authors.
Medicina | Year: 2011

We describe a case of 17-year- old man native of Dominican Republic, with Hodgkin's lymphoma, who presented soft espontaneous draining nodules. In the clinical samples grew Burkholderia pseudomallei; the etiological agent of melioidosis. He received antimicrobial treatment with imipenem and amoxicillin/clavulanic with very good clinical evolution of the infectious process. Melioidosis diagnosis could be underestimated due to the low incidence of Burkholderia pseudomallei in our continent. The definitive diagnosis depends of the isolation and identification in the clinical sample.

Wikinski R.,Institute Fisiopatologia y Bioquimica Clinica | Cacciagiu L.,Institute Fisiopatologia y Bioquimica Clinica | Lopez G.,Institute Fisiopatologia y Bioquimica Clinica | Gonzalez A.I.,Institute Fisiopatologia y Bioquimica Clinica | And 3 more authors.
Acta Bioquimica Clinica Latinoamericana | Year: 2013

The decrease in LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) is considered the main goal in the treatment of patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular risk. However, patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) on hemodialysis have LDL-C below 100 mg/dL, moderate increases in triglycerides and low frequency of HDL cholesterol values below desirable.This condition fits into the phenomenon known as "reverse epidemiology", in which the normal relationship between hypercholesterolemia, high blood pressure, obesity and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality is not found; contrarily, there is a reversal in the close relationship of these parameters with cardiovascular events typical of non-hemodialyzed patients. On the one hand, 35% of CKD patients have Type 2 diabetes mellitus and on the other hand, there are other lesser known pathogenic factors such as lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2, C-reactive protein, remnant lipoproteins, Lp(a) and enzymes and proteins associated to HDL such as paraoxonase and Apo A-I. The set of factors described could replace, in CKD patients on hemodialysis, LDL cholesterol, a typical analyte that, in other patients, acts as a risk and/or pathogenesis factor of atherosclerosis and not only as a circulating marker. A likely explanation for decreased C-LDL cholesterol is qualitative modification of LDL as a result of oxidation, glycation, carbamylation, occurrence of small and dense LDL, inflammatory phenomena and malnutrition.

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