Institute Filosofia

Madrid, Spain

Institute Filosofia

Madrid, Spain

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Todt O.,University of the Balearic Islands | Gonzalez M.I.,Institute Filosofia | Estevez B.,Institute Filosofia
Wind Energy | Year: 2011

This paper analyses a participatory process related to the plan to construct an offshore wind farm in the Sea of Trafalgar, off the coast of Cádiz, in Andalucía (southern Spain). This case study shows the complexities of public participation in energy development, indicating the vital importance of context. The stakeholders' values and attitudes in the controversy are highly dependent on the specific situation, including the concrete characteristics of the project proposal. In fact, they may diverge sharply from the stakeholders' core beliefs. It is important for decision making to take account of this contextual and dynamic element in stakeholder behavior, contrary to suppositions of static and predetermined behavior. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


Martykanova D.,Institute Filosofia
Engineering Studies | Year: 2014

The education of Spanish engineers-civil servants became standardised since the 1830s, leaning on institutional precedents dating to the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. Henceforth, studies in a state-run special school constituted an important milestone and unifying element in the careers of these men. The education in special schools not only provided the future engineers with what was considered knowledge necessary for carrying out their professional duties, but it was also supposed to strengthen certain human characteristics desirable in elite civil servants in general, and corps engineers in particular. While some of these elements were introduced with more or less explicit intention to obtain specific results, others seem to have been developed as products of institutional dynamics or were combination of both. One way or another, the contents of engineers' education, the criteria and methods of selection and evaluation, explicit and unspoken rules of students' life, all these created very exceptional settings that shaped the young men into a unique profile. I examine how the different mechanisms of selection, evaluation and discipline and other elements of the school life in engineering schools besides the curricula, shaped the young men who studied there into a specific figure of Spanish state engineer, an elite man with a strong corporate (as in "corps") identity, individual and collective self-confidence and a sense of entitlement to make decisions on behalf of the Nation. The conclusions discuss the exceptional position of Spanish corps engineers within nineteenth-century Spanish governing elites. © 2014 © 2014 Taylor & Francis.


This paper examines the State's assumption of medical care for patients with «permanent needs» in 19th century Spain. These patients were the incurably ill, the chronically ill and the elderly. This process is contextualized within the liberal reforms of the Spanish healthcare system in the reign of Isabel II (1833-1868). The goal of these reforms was the creation and consolidation of a national health system that would gradually replace the religious health charities. Healthcare reform became necessary due to the increase in migration that started in the 1830's and intensified in the 1850's. Traditional care networks formed by the family, local community and religious charities were no longer available to those who had left their village or town. In addition, many religious charities were bankrupted by the seizure of their properties in a programme of confiscation. Similar healthcare reform processes were taking place in the United Kingdom, France and Germany, among other European countries, and involved significant changes in the lives of patients, who became strictly controlled and medicalised. My aim was to identify changes in the patients' experience of illness through a case study of the living conditions of inmates at the Nuestra Señora del Carmen Hospital for Incurable Men, based in Madrid from 1852 to 1949. This was one of the institutions devoted to caring for patients with «permanent needs» and was under the direct control of the General State Administration.


Santesmases M.J.,Institute Filosofia
Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C :Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences | Year: 2014

Through their ability to reveal and record abnormal chromosomes, whether inherited or accidentally altered, chromosomal studies, known as karyotyping, became the basis upon which medical genetics was constructed. The techniques involved became the visual evidence that confirmed a medical examination and were configured as a material culture for redefining health and disease, or the normal and the abnormal, in cytological terms. I will show that the study of foetal cells obtained by amniocentesis led to the stabilisation of karyotyping in its own right, while also keeping pregnant women under the vigilant medical eye. In the absence of any other examination, prenatal diagnosis by foetal karyotyping became autonomous from the foetal body. Although medical cytogenetics was practiced on an individual basis, data collected about patients over time contributed to the construction of population figures regarding birth defects. I study this complex trajectory by focussing on a Unit for Cytogenetics created in 1962 at the Clínica de la Concepción in Madrid. I incorporate the work and training of the clinicians who created the unit, and worked there as well as at other units in the large new hospitals of the national health care system built in Madrid during the mid-1960s and early 1970s. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Santesmases M.J.,Institute Filosofia
Journal of the History of Biology | Year: 2016

This essay details a historical crossroad in biochemistry and microbiology in which penicillin was a co-agent. I narrate the trajectory of the bacterial cell wall as the precise target for antibiotic action. As a strategic object of research, the bacterial cell wall remained at the core of experimental practices, scientific narratives and research funding appeals throughout the antibiotic era. The research laboratory was dedicated to the search for new antibiotics while remaining the site at which the mode of action of this new substance was investigated. This combination of circumstances made the bacterial wall an ontology in transit. As invisible as the bacterial wall was for clinical purposes, in the biological laboratory, cellular meaning in regard to the action of penicillin made the bacterial wall visible within both microbiology and biochemistry. As a border to be crossed, some components of the bacterial cell wall and the biochemical destruction produced by penicillin became known during the 1950s and 1960s. The cell wall was constructed piece by piece in a transatlantic circulation of methods, names, and images of the shape of the wall itself. From 1955 onwards, microbiologists and biochemists mobilized new names and associated conceptual meanings. The composition of this thin and rigid layer would account for its shape, growth and destruction. This paper presents a history of biochemical morphology: a chemistry of shape – the shape of bacteria, as provided by its wall – that accounted for biology, for life itself. While penicillin was being established as an industrially-manufactured object, it remained a scientific tool within the research laboratory, contributing to the circulation of further scientific objects. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.


Riccardi M.,Institute Filosofia
Inquiry (United Kingdom) | Year: 2015

Nietzsche believes that we do not know our own actions, nor their real motives. This belief, however, is but a consequence of his assuming a quite general skepticism about introspection. The main aim of this paper is to offer a reading of this last view, which I shall call the Inner Opacity (IO) view. In the first part of the paper I show that a strong motivation behind IO lies in Nietzsche’s claim that self-knowledge exploits the same set of cognitive capacities as well as the same folk-psychological framework involved in outward-directed mind-reading. In the second part I turn to Nietzsche’s view of agency and argue that he sees a fundamental discrepancy between the conscious attitudes we have introspective access to, on the one hand, and the subpersonal processes and states occurring at the unconscious level of the drives, on the other hand. © 2014, Taylor & Francis.


Navarro M.G.,Institute Filosofia
Studies in Fuzziness and Soft Computing | Year: 2013

In 1685, in The Art of Discovery, Leibniz set down an extraordinary idea: "The only way to rectify our reasonings is to make them as tangible as those of the Mathematicians, so that we can find our error at a glance, and when there are disputes among persons, we can simply say: Let us calculate [calculemus], without further ado, to see who is right." Calculemus. Much has been written about that celebrated expression, but if I had to remember the moment when the famous Leibnizian motto once again brought back to mind, in a way, artefacts of the present and the future, that moment would be connected with a seminar organised by Verónica Sanz at the Philosophy Institute of the Spanish Council for Scientific Research (CSIC), when she was the coordinator of the Seminario Internacional de Jóvenes Investigadores (the International Seminar for Young Researchers). At that seminar, Sergio Guadarrama presented the challenge of computing with words. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Heeney C.,Institute Filosofia
Information Society | Year: 2012

Along with informed consent, anonymization is an accepted method of protecting the interests of research participants, while allowing data collected for official statistical purposes to be reused by other agencies within and outside government. The Decennial Census, carried out in a number of countries, including the United Kingdom, is a major event in the production of research data and provides an important resource for a variety of organizations. This article combines ethical evaluation, a review of relevant law and guidance, and analysis of 30 qualitative interviews (carried out during the period of the 2001 UK Census), in order to explore the adequacy of the current framework for the protection of informational privacy in relation to census data. Taking account of Nissenbaum's concept of "contextual integrity," Vedder's concept of "categorical privacy," and Sen's call to heed of the importance of "actual behavior," it will be argued that the current "contractarian" view of the relationship between an individual participant and the organization carrying out the Census does not engage sufficiently with actual uses of data. As a result, people have expectations of privacy that are not matched by practice and that the current normative-including the governance-framework cannot capture. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.


PubMed | Institute Filosofia and Rey Juan Carlos University
Type: Historical Article | Journal: Journal of lesbian studies | Year: 2015

What made current Spanish feminism shift toward transfeminism? Based on in-depth interviews and literature reviews, we explore what factors facilitated the participation of trans* women in Spanish feminism. Tracing the history through relevant events such as the National Feminist Conferences, it becomes clear that trans* women participated in the 1993, 2000, and 2009 conferences, posing relevant issues regarding prostitution, transgenderism, and the political subject of feminism. Our research allows a break with global oppositional narratives, in which these movements are in conflict, and highlights the importance of understanding the vernacular nuances that take place in a particular geopolitical context.


PubMed | Institute Filosofia
Type: Historical Article | Journal: Journal of the history of biology | Year: 2016

This essay details a historical crossroad in biochemistry and microbiology in which penicillin was a co-agent. I narrate the trajectory of the bacterial cell wall as the precise target for antibiotic action. As a strategic object of research, the bacterial cell wall remained at the core of experimental practices, scientific narratives and research funding appeals throughout the antibiotic era. The research laboratory was dedicated to the search for new antibiotics while remaining the site at which the mode of action of this new substance was investigated. This combination of circumstances made the bacterial wall an ontology in transit. As invisible as the bacterial wall was for clinical purposes, in the biological laboratory, cellular meaning in regard to the action of penicillin made the bacterial wall visible within both microbiology and biochemistry. As a border to be crossed, some components of the bacterial cell wall and the biochemical destruction produced by penicillin became known during the 1950s and 1960s. The cell wall was constructed piece by piece in a transatlantic circulation of methods, names, and images of the shape of the wall itself. From 1955 onwards, microbiologists and biochemists mobilized new names and associated conceptual meanings. The composition of this thin and rigid layer would account for its shape, growth and destruction. This paper presents a history of biochemical morphology: a chemistry of shape - the shape of bacteria, as provided by its wall - that accounted for biology, for life itself. While penicillin was being established as an industrially-manufactured object, it remained a scientific tool within the research laboratory, contributing to the circulation of further scientific objects.

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