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Borges M.E.,University of La Laguna | Tejera R.L.,University of La Laguna | Diaz L.,University of La Laguna | Esparza P.,University of La Laguna | Ibanez E.,Institute Fermentaciones Industriales CSIC
Food Chemistry | Year: 2012

Carminic acid is a natural colourant that can be obtained from the dried bodies of females of the Dactylopius coccus Costa insect species (cochineal). Carminic acid is the main pigment that can be extracted from the cochineal insect. Its main use is with cosmetics, foods and pharmaceutical applications and it can also have textile and plastic applications. The traditional extraction methods employed to obtain this dye involve several drawbacks, e.g. high extraction time, low selectivity and low extraction efficiency. Moreover, these conventional techniques need toxic solvents. In this work, new extraction methods have been studied in order to avoid the disadvantages mentioned above. Pressurised liquid extraction (PLE) and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) techniques provide high selectivity and short extraction times. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Villamiel M.A.R.,Institute Fermentaciones Industriales CSIC
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2010

The effect of pyridoxamine on the Maillard reaction during the formation of conjugates of β-lactoglobulin with galactose and tagatose under controlled conditions (pH 7, 0.44 aw, 40 and 50 °C, for 6 days) has been studied, for the first time, by means of the changes in reducing carbohydrates, formation of Amadori or Heyns compounds, and aggregates and browning development. The results showed the formation of interaction products between pyridoxamine and galactose or tagatose either in the presence or in the absence of β-lactoglobulin, indicating that pyridoxamine competes with the free amino groups of β-lactoglobulin for the carbonyl group of both carbohydrates. Thus, a small Inhibitory effect of pyridoxamine on the initial stages of the Maillard reaction was pointed out. Furthermore, much lower aggregation and color formation rates were observed in the conjugates of β-lactoglobulin galactose/tagatose with pyridoxamine than without this compound, supporting its potent inhibitory effect on the advanced and final stages of the Maillard reaction. These findings reveal the usefulness of food-grade inhibitors of the advanced stages of the Maillard reaction, such as pyridoxamine, that, in combination with mild storage conditions, could lead to the formation of safer neoglycoconjugates without impairing their nutritional quality. © 2009 American Chemical Society.


Herrero M.,Institute Fermentaciones Industriales CSIC | Herrero M.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Garcia-Canas V.,Institute Fermentaciones Industriales CSIC | Simo C.,Institute Fermentaciones Industriales CSIC | Cifuentes A.,Institute Fermentaciones Industriales CSIC
Electrophoresis | Year: 2010

The use of capillary electromigration methods to analyze foods and food components is reviewed in this work. Papers that were published during the period April 2007 to March 2009 are included following the previous review by García-Cañas and Cifuentes (Electrophoresis, 2008, 29, 294-309). These works include the analysis of amino acids, biogenic amines, peptides, proteins, DNAs, carbohydrates, phenols, polyphenols, pigments, toxins, pesticides, vitamins, additives, small organic and inorganic ions and other compounds found in foods and beverages, as well as those applications of CE for monitoring food interactions and food processing. The use of microchips, CE-MS, chiral-CE as well as other foreseen trends in food analysis are also discussed including their possibilities in the very new field of Foodomics. © 2009 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.


Herrero M.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Herrero M.,Institute Fermentaciones Industriales CSIC | Plaza M.,Institute Fermentaciones Industriales CSIC | Cifuentes A.,Institute Fermentaciones Industriales CSIC | Ibanez E.,Institute Fermentaciones Industriales CSIC
Journal of Chromatography A | Year: 2010

In this contribution, the performance of three different extraction procedures towards the extraction of antioxidants from rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) is presented. Namely, pressurized liquid extraction (PLE), using water and ethanol as solvents, supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), using neat CO2 and supercritical CO2 modified with ethanol, as well as a novel extraction process called Water Extraction and Particle formation On-line (WEPO) are directly compared. Different extraction conditions including temperatures, times and pressures have been studied. The produced extracts have been characterized in terms of extraction yield, antioxidant activity (using the DPPH radical scavenging method) and total phenols (using the Folin method). Besides, all the extracts have been chemically characterized using a new quantitative UPLC-MS/MS method. This method allowed the determination of the main antioxidants present in rosemary, including, among others, rosmarinic acid, carnosic acid and carnosol, attaining detection limits as low as 2ng/mL. The results obtained in this study show that PLE using ethanol at high temperatures (200°C) was able to produce extracts with high antioxidant activity (EC50 8.8μg/mL) and high yield (ca. 40%) while efficiently extracting antioxidants of diverse polarity, among them, carnosic and rosmarinic acids, regarded as the most important antioxidants present in rosemary. Nevertheless, in this work, the ability of the three studied environmentally friendly extraction techniques to obtain bioactives from natural sources is demonstrated. © 2009 Elsevier B.V.


Ganan M.,Institute Fermentaciones Industriales CSIC | Silvan J.M.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Carrascosa A.V.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Martinez-Rodriguez A.J.,Autonomous University of Madrid
Food Control | Year: 2012

Campylobacteriosis is considered the most frequent zoonosis in humans, and the handling and/or consumption of poultry meat is considered the main source for human infection. The reduction of the rates of infection in chickens should make an effective contribution to substantially controlling the illness in humans. However, the increase of the general concern about the spreading of antibiotic resistance in humans has determined the elimination of antibiotics as growth promoters in livestock. At this point, it is essential to search for new, natural and sustainable strategies to reduce the incidence of this bacterium in the food chain, especially in its main host. The objective of this review is to revise the different strategies, designed to reduce the presence or to eradicate Campylobacter from the human food chain. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

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