Institute Fermentaciones Industriales CSIC

Madrid, Spain

Institute Fermentaciones Industriales CSIC

Madrid, Spain
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Herrero M.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Herrero M.,Institute Fermentaciones Industriales CSIC | Plaza M.,Institute Fermentaciones Industriales CSIC | Cifuentes A.,Institute Fermentaciones Industriales CSIC | Ibanez E.,Institute Fermentaciones Industriales CSIC
Journal of Chromatography A | Year: 2010

In this contribution, the performance of three different extraction procedures towards the extraction of antioxidants from rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) is presented. Namely, pressurized liquid extraction (PLE), using water and ethanol as solvents, supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), using neat CO2 and supercritical CO2 modified with ethanol, as well as a novel extraction process called Water Extraction and Particle formation On-line (WEPO) are directly compared. Different extraction conditions including temperatures, times and pressures have been studied. The produced extracts have been characterized in terms of extraction yield, antioxidant activity (using the DPPH radical scavenging method) and total phenols (using the Folin method). Besides, all the extracts have been chemically characterized using a new quantitative UPLC-MS/MS method. This method allowed the determination of the main antioxidants present in rosemary, including, among others, rosmarinic acid, carnosic acid and carnosol, attaining detection limits as low as 2ng/mL. The results obtained in this study show that PLE using ethanol at high temperatures (200°C) was able to produce extracts with high antioxidant activity (EC50 8.8μg/mL) and high yield (ca. 40%) while efficiently extracting antioxidants of diverse polarity, among them, carnosic and rosmarinic acids, regarded as the most important antioxidants present in rosemary. Nevertheless, in this work, the ability of the three studied environmentally friendly extraction techniques to obtain bioactives from natural sources is demonstrated. © 2009 Elsevier B.V.

Borges M.E.,University of La Laguna | Tejera R.L.,University of La Laguna | Diaz L.,University of La Laguna | Esparza P.,University of La Laguna | Ibanez E.,Institute Fermentaciones Industriales CSIC
Food Chemistry | Year: 2012

Carminic acid is a natural colourant that can be obtained from the dried bodies of females of the Dactylopius coccus Costa insect species (cochineal). Carminic acid is the main pigment that can be extracted from the cochineal insect. Its main use is with cosmetics, foods and pharmaceutical applications and it can also have textile and plastic applications. The traditional extraction methods employed to obtain this dye involve several drawbacks, e.g. high extraction time, low selectivity and low extraction efficiency. Moreover, these conventional techniques need toxic solvents. In this work, new extraction methods have been studied in order to avoid the disadvantages mentioned above. Pressurised liquid extraction (PLE) and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) techniques provide high selectivity and short extraction times. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Herrero M.,Institute Fermentaciones Industriales CSIC | Herrero M.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Garcia-Canas V.,Institute Fermentaciones Industriales CSIC | Simo C.,Institute Fermentaciones Industriales CSIC | Cifuentes A.,Institute Fermentaciones Industriales CSIC
Electrophoresis | Year: 2010

The use of capillary electromigration methods to analyze foods and food components is reviewed in this work. Papers that were published during the period April 2007 to March 2009 are included following the previous review by García-Cañas and Cifuentes (Electrophoresis, 2008, 29, 294-309). These works include the analysis of amino acids, biogenic amines, peptides, proteins, DNAs, carbohydrates, phenols, polyphenols, pigments, toxins, pesticides, vitamins, additives, small organic and inorganic ions and other compounds found in foods and beverages, as well as those applications of CE for monitoring food interactions and food processing. The use of microchips, CE-MS, chiral-CE as well as other foreseen trends in food analysis are also discussed including their possibilities in the very new field of Foodomics. © 2009 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

Herrero M.,Institute Fermentaciones Industriales CSIC | Herrero M.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Mendiola J.A.,Institute Fermentaciones Industriales CSIC | Cifuentes A.,Institute Fermentaciones Industriales CSIC | Ibanez E.,Institute Fermentaciones Industriales CSIC
Journal of Chromatography A | Year: 2010

Among the different extraction techniques used at analytical and preparative scale, supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) is one of the most used. This review covers the most recent developments of SFE in different fields, such as food science, natural products, by-product recovery, pharmaceutical and environmental sciences, during the period 2007-2009. The revision is focused on the most recent advances and applications in the different areas; among them, it is remarkable the strong impact of SFE to extract high value compounds from food and natural products but also its increasing importance in areas such as heavy metals recovery, enantiomeric resolution or drug delivery systems. © 2009 Elsevier B.V.

Ganan M.,Institute Fermentaciones Industriales CSIC | Silvan J.M.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Carrascosa A.V.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Martinez-Rodriguez A.J.,Autonomous University of Madrid
Food Control | Year: 2012

Campylobacteriosis is considered the most frequent zoonosis in humans, and the handling and/or consumption of poultry meat is considered the main source for human infection. The reduction of the rates of infection in chickens should make an effective contribution to substantially controlling the illness in humans. However, the increase of the general concern about the spreading of antibiotic resistance in humans has determined the elimination of antibiotics as growth promoters in livestock. At this point, it is essential to search for new, natural and sustainable strategies to reduce the incidence of this bacterium in the food chain, especially in its main host. The objective of this review is to revise the different strategies, designed to reduce the presence or to eradicate Campylobacter from the human food chain. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Corzo-Martinez M.,Institute Fermentaciones Industriales CSIC | Moreno F.J.,Institute Fermentaciones Industriales CSIC | Villamiel M.,Institute Fermentaciones Industriales CSIC | Harte F.M.,University of Tennessee at Knoxville
Food Hydrocolloids | Year: 2010

The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of non-enzymatic glycosylation with galactose, lactose, and 10 kDa dextran on the rheological properties of sodium caseinate. To promote the formation of covalent complexes, the reaction was done in solid state (aw = 0.67), pH 7.0 (0.1 M sodium phosphate buffer), and temperature set at 50 and 60 °C. The progress of Maillard reaction was indirectly traced by measuring the formation of the Amadori compound, through furosine (2-furoylmethyl-lysine) analysis, and brown polymers, and the resulting glycoconjugates were characterized by LC/ESI-MS and SEC. Results showed a higher reactivity of galactose than lactose and dextran to form the glycoconjugates, due to its smaller molecular weight. Glycation with galactose and lactose increased the viscosity of caseinate and also altered its flow characteristics from Newtonian to shear-thinning. Oscillatory testing showed a higher elastic modulus (G′) in glycoconjugates when compared to non-glycated caseinate, especially with galactose, where a gel-like behaviour was observed after long incubation times. Glycation with dextran did not produce substantial improvements in the rheological properties of caseinate, probably due to the limited extent of the reaction. Our results show that by controlling the rate and extent of the Maillard reaction is a technologically feasible operation to improve the viscosity and gelling properties of sodium caseinate-based ingredients. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Penas E.,CSIC - Institute of Refrigeration | Gomez R.,CSIC - Institute of Refrigeration | Frias J.,Institute Fermentaciones Industriales CSIC | Vidal-Valverde C.,Institute Fermentaciones Industriales CSIC
Food Control | Year: 2010

The effects of several combinations of pressure, temperature and two antimicrobial agents, hypochlorite and carvacrol, applied separately on mung bean seeds, on their germination capability and on native microbial loads of sprouts developed from treated seeds, was studied by using response surface methodology (RSM). Seed viability decreased as pressure increased, at all concentrations of both hypochlorite and carvacrol. Enhanced reductions of total aerobic mesophilic bacteria, total and faecal coliforms and yeast and moulds populations were observed as pressure and hypochlorite/carvacrol concentrations increased. The optimal treatment at 250 MPa of seeds soaked in 18000 ppm and 1500 ppm of calcium hypochlorite and carvacrol, respectively, maintained an acceptable germination rate (80% and 60%, respectively) and improved the microbial quality of the respective sprouts with reductions of more than 5 log cfu/g. These reduction levels can be considered a preservative goal for industrial mung bean sprout production. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Contreras M.D.M.,Institute Fermentaciones Industriales CSIC | Hernandez-Ledesma B.,Institute Fermentaciones Industriales CSIC | Amigo L.,Institute Fermentaciones Industriales CSIC | Martin-Alvarez P.J.,Institute Fermentaciones Industriales CSIC | Recio I.,Institute Fermentaciones Industriales CSIC
LWT - Food Science and Technology | Year: 2011

Whey protein concentrate (WPC) enriched in β-lactoglobulin (β-Lg) was hydrolyzed using Corolase PP® and thermolysin to produce hydrolyzates with antioxidant activity. The optimization of the main experimental variables involved in the process, such as type of enzyme, and hydrolysis conditions, concretely enzyme to substrate ratio, time and temperature, were evaluated using response surface methodology. A central composite circumscribed (CCC) design was employed to study the effect of the experimental variables on the antioxidant activity determined by radical scavenging potency. The parameters of the model were estimated by multiple linear regression, and the highest radical scavenging activity (2.57 μmol Trolox/mg protein) was found in WPC hydrolyzed with thermolysin after 8 h at 80 °C and an enzyme/substrate ratio of 0.10 (w/w). Nineteen β-Lg derived peptides were identified by RP-HPLC-MS/MS in this hydrolyzate. Of special interest are peptides LQKW f(58-61) and LDTDYKK f(95-101), which amino acid composition makes them potential contributors on the radical scavenging activity detected. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Soria A.C.,Institute Fermentaciones Industriales CSIC | Villamiel M.,Institute Fermentaciones Industriales CSIC
Trends in Food Science and Technology | Year: 2010

This review is a comprehensive survey on the latest and more recent applications of ultrasound (US) on technological properties and bioactivity of food. Apart from a brief discussion on the fundamentals of ultrasound technology, examples have been set out on the physical effects of US on the improvement of food technological properties such as emulsification ability, solubility and texture, as well as on applications such as homogenization, viscosity alteration, extraction, drying, crystallization and defoaming. Among them, special emphasis has been placed on ultrasound assisted extraction (UAE). Nowadays, developments in ultrasonic equipment are such that it is feasible to consider commercial opportunities based on industrial-scale ultrasonic-aided extraction of bioactives, with worthwhile economics gains. Additionally, the initial restrictions associated to ultrasonically generated radicals in UAE have now been explored to enhance the functionality of some types of food. Finally, and despite the improved equipment design and the higher efficiencies of US systems currently used for other applications, a better understanding of the complex physicochemical mechanism of the action of high-intensity ultrasound and its effect on technological and functional properties of food would also contribute to reinforce the future presence of ultrasonic technologies in the food industry. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Villamiel M.A.R.,Institute Fermentaciones Industriales CSIC
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2010

The effect of pyridoxamine on the Maillard reaction during the formation of conjugates of β-lactoglobulin with galactose and tagatose under controlled conditions (pH 7, 0.44 aw, 40 and 50 °C, for 6 days) has been studied, for the first time, by means of the changes in reducing carbohydrates, formation of Amadori or Heyns compounds, and aggregates and browning development. The results showed the formation of interaction products between pyridoxamine and galactose or tagatose either in the presence or in the absence of β-lactoglobulin, indicating that pyridoxamine competes with the free amino groups of β-lactoglobulin for the carbonyl group of both carbohydrates. Thus, a small Inhibitory effect of pyridoxamine on the initial stages of the Maillard reaction was pointed out. Furthermore, much lower aggregation and color formation rates were observed in the conjugates of β-lactoglobulin galactose/tagatose with pyridoxamine than without this compound, supporting its potent inhibitory effect on the advanced and final stages of the Maillard reaction. These findings reveal the usefulness of food-grade inhibitors of the advanced stages of the Maillard reaction, such as pyridoxamine, that, in combination with mild storage conditions, could lead to the formation of safer neoglycoconjugates without impairing their nutritional quality. © 2009 American Chemical Society.

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