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Ruiz-Matute A.I.,Institute Fermentaciones Industriales CIAL CSIC | Hernandez-Hernandez O.,Institute Quimica Organica General CSIC | Rodriguez-Sanchez S.,Institute Quimica Organica General CSIC | Sanz M.L.,Institute Quimica Organica General CSIC | Martinez-Castro I.,Institute Quimica Organica General CSIC
Journal of Chromatography B: Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences | Year: 2011

GC and GC-MS are excellent techniques for the analysis of carbohydrates; nevertheless the preparation of adequate derivatives is necessary. The different functional groups that can be found and the diversity of samples require specific methods. This review aims to collect the most important methodologies currently used, either published as new procedures or as new applications, for the analysis of carbohydrates. A high diversity of compounds with diverse functionalities has been selected: neutral carbohydrates (saccharides and polyalcohols), sugar acids, amino and iminosugars, polysaccharides, glycosides, glycoconjugates, anhydrosugars, difructose anhydrides and products resulting of Maillard reaction (osuloses, Amadori compounds). Chiral analysis has also been considered, describing the use of diastereomers and derivatives to be eluted on chiral stationary phases. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Cueva C.,Institute Fermentaciones Industriales CIAL CSIC | Moreno-Arribas M.V.,Institute Fermentaciones Industriales CIAL CSIC | Martin-Alvarez P.J.,Institute Fermentaciones Industriales CIAL CSIC | Bills G.,Merck And Co. | And 6 more authors.
Research in Microbiology | Year: 2010

Phenolic acids (benzoic, phenylacetic and phenylpropionic acids) are the most abundant phenolic structures found in fecal water. As an approach towards the exploration of their action in the gut, this paper reports the antimicrobial activity of thirteen phenolic acids towards Escherichia coli, Lactobacillus spp., Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans. The growth of E. coli ATCC 25922 was inhibited by only four of the phenolic acids tested at a concentration of 1000 μg/mL, whereas pathogenic E. coli O157:H7 (CECT 5947) was susceptible to ten of them. The genetically manipulated E. coli lpxC/tolC strain was highly susceptible to phenolic acids. The growth of lactobacilli (Lactobacillus paraplantarum LCH7, Lactobacillus plantarum LCH17, Lactobacillus fermentum LPH1, L. fermentum CECT 5716, Lactobacillus brevis LCH23, and Lactobacillus coryniformis CECT 5711) and pathogens (S. aureus EP167 and C. albicans MY1055) was also inhibited by phenolic acids, but to varying extents. Only P. aeruginosa PAO1 was not susceptible to any of the phenolic compounds tested. Structure-activity relationships of phenolic acids and some of their diet precursors [(+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin] were established, based on multivariate analysis of microbial activities. The antimicrobial properties of phenolic acids reported in this paper might be relevant in vivo. © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS.

Corzo-Martinez M.,Institute Fermentaciones Industriales CIAL CSIC | Soria A.C.,Institute Fermentaciones Industriales CIAL CSIC | Villamiel M.,Institute Fermentaciones Industriales CIAL CSIC | Olano A.,Institute Fermentaciones Industriales CIAL CSIC | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Dairy Science | Year: 2011

This work explores the potential of high-intensity ultrasound to produce fine-dispersion, long-time-stable, oil-in-water emulsions prepared with native and glycated bovine sodium caseinate (SC). Regardless the ultrasound amplitude and time assayed, the sonicated emulsions of native SC at 0.5 mg/mL had much higher emulsifying activity indexes compared with those emulsions formed by Ultra-Turrax (IKA Werke GmbH & Co., Staufen, Germany) homogenization. Nevertheless, the native SC emulsions were very unstable despite the optimization of parameters such as protein concentration, amplitude of ultrasound wave, and sonication time by using a Box-Behnken design. Early glycation of SC with either galactose, lactose, or 10 kDa dextran substantially improved both emulsifying activity and the stability, whereas at advanced stages of glycation, SC emulsions showed notably reduced emulsifying properties, likely because extensive glycation of SC promoted its polymerization mainly through covalent cross-linking, as was demonstrated by particle size measurements. The increase in particle diameter of glycoconjugates likely affected the diffusion of SC from bulk to the oil-water interface and slowed the reorientation process of the protein at the interface. These findings show that the combined effect of early-stage glycation of SC and high-intensity ultrasound as an emergent technique to form emulsions has the potential to provide improved emulsions that could be used in several food applications. © 2011 American Dairy Science Association.

Requena T.,CSIC - Institute of Refrigeration | Monagas M.,Institute Fermentaciones Industriales CIAL CSIC | Pozo-Bayon M.A.,Institute Fermentaciones Industriales CIAL CSIC | Martin-Alvarez P.J.,Institute Fermentaciones Industriales CIAL CSIC | And 6 more authors.
Trends in Food Science and Technology | Year: 2010

Food polyphenols are able to selectively modify the growth of susceptible micro-organisms. Wine is a good source of polyphenols and thus, the moderate consumption of this beverage can lead to the modulation of both oral and gut microbiota. This review aims to bring together the knowledge acquired concerning the potential effects of wine polyphenols on human microbiota, as well as taking into account the ability of bacteria to metabolize these compounds. Red wine phenolic composition, characterized by the occurrence of flavan-3-ols, flavonols, anthocyanins, hydroxybenzoic and hydroxycinnamic acids, stilbenes and phenolic alcohols as the main phenolic compounds, will determine the microbiota-modulating effects of wine consumption. Moreover, although the same bacterial genera can be found in oral and gut ecosystems, their relative amount is different, which can influence the metabolic transformations of wine polyphenols. Taking all this into account, the potential implications of these studies on human microbiota are finally discussed together with perspective and future research trends in this field. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

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