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Brutemark A.,Linnaeus University | Carvalho W.F.,Institute Estudos do Mar Almirante Paulo Moreira IEAPM | Graneli E.,Linnaeus University
Journal of the American Water Resources Association | Year: 2010

Harmful algal bloom species can persist in the environment, impacting aquatic life and human health. One of the mechanisms by which some harmful algal bloom species are able to persist is by consumption of organic particles. Methods to demonstrate and measure consumption can yield insight into how populations thrive. Here, we combine flow cytometry and real-time PCR to demonstrate consumption of a cryptophyte species (Rhodomonas sp. .) by a toxic mixotrophic haptophyte (Prymnesium parvum). Using flow cytometry, the feeding frequency of a population of P. parvum cells was calculated using the phycoerythrin (PE) fluorescence signal from Rhodomonas sp. and the fluorescence of an acidotropic probe labeling the food vacuoles. Feeding frequency increased in the beginning of the experiment and then began to decline, reaching a maximum of 47.5% of the whole P. parvum population after 212 min. The maximum number of consumed Rhodomonas sp. cells was 0.8 per P. parvum cell, and occurred after 114 min corresponding to an ingestion rate of 0.4 Rhodomonas sp. cells/. P. parvum/h. Cells from the feeding P. parvum population were sorted, washed, and subjected to a real-time PCR assay targeting the cryptophyte 18S locus. There was a correlation between cycle threshold (Ct) values and number of consumed prey cells calculated by fluorescence. Overall, this study shows that flow cytometric analysis, of the acidotropic probe and prey pigments, is an efficient and rapid tool in enumerating food vacuoles and the number of prey cells consumed. Furthermore, we suggest that real-time PCR can be applied to cells sorted by flow cytometry, thus allowing for the detection and potential quantification of the targeted prey cells. © 2010 American Water Resources Association. Source

Pimenta A.D.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | Monteiro J.C.,Institute Estudos do Mar Almirante Paulo Moreira IEAPM | Barbosa A.F.,Instituto Brasileiro do Meio Ambiente e dos Recursos Naturais Renovaveis IBAMA | Salgado N.C.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | Dos Santos Coelho A.C.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
Zootaxa | Year: 2014

A curatorial revision of the type specimens deposited in the Mollusca Collection of the Museu Nacional/UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (MNRJ) revealed the existence of 518 lots of type specimens (holotypes, neotypes, syntypes and paratypes) for 285 names of molluscan taxa from 88 families, including 247 gastropods, 30 bivalves, three cephalopods and five scaphopods. A total of 106 holotypes and one neotype are deposited in the MNRJ. Type material for ten nominal taxa described as being deposited in the MNRJ was not located; the probable reasons are discussed. Some previously published erroneous information about types in the MNRJ is rectified. A total of 37 type specimens are illustrated. © 2014 Magnolia Press. Source

Massone C.G.,Pontifical Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro | Massone C.G.,Institute Estudos do Mar Almirante Paulo Moreira IEAPM | Wagener A.D.L.R.,Pontifical Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro | Abreu H.M.D.,Pontifical Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro | Veiga A.,Pontifical Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro
Marine Pollution Bulletin | Year: 2013

The aim of this work was to test the efficiency of statistical methods as compared to the traditional diagnostic ratios to improve hydrocarbon source identification in sediments subjected to multiple inputs. Hydrocarbon determination in Guanabara Bay sediments pointed out high degradation and ubiquitous petrogenic pollution through the presence of high unresolved complex mixture. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs) ratios suggested pervasive contamination derived from combustion in all sediments and failed discriminating samples despite the specificity of sources in different sampling sites. Principal component analysis (PCA) effectively distinguished the petrogenic imprint superimposed to the ubiquitous combustion contamination, since this technique reduces the influence of PAHs distribution which is common to all samples. PCA associated to multivariate linear regression (MLR) allowed a quantitative assessment of sources confirming predominance of the pervasive contaminant component superimposed to a generalized petrogenic imprint. The pervasive component derives from combustion contributions as well as from differential PAHs degradation. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Gregoracci G.B.,UNIFESP Baixada Santista | Gregoracci G.B.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | Dos Santos Soares A.C.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | Miranda M.D.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | And 4 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

Although previous studies have described opposing states in upwelling regions, i.e., the rise of cold nutrient-rich waters and prevalence of surface warm nutrient-poor waters, few have addressed the transition from one state to the other. This study aimed to describe the microbial and viral structure during this transition and was able to obtain the taxonomic and metabolic compositions as well as physical-chemical data. This integrated approach allowed for a better understanding of the dynamics of the downwelling upwelling transition, suggesting that a wealth of metabolic processes and ecological interactions are occurring in the minute fractions of the plankton (femto, pico, nano). These processes and interactions included evidence of microbial predominance during downwelling (with nitrogen recycling and aerobic anoxygenic photosynthesis), different viral predation pressures over primary production in different states (cyanobacteria vs eukaryotes), and a predominance of diatoms and selected bacterial and archaeal groups during upwelling (with the occurrence of a wealth of nitrogen metabolism involving ammonia). Thus, the results provided insights into which microbes, viruses and microbial-mediated processes are probably important in the functioning of upwelling systems. Copyright: © 2015 Gregoracci et al. Source

Zamprogno G.C.,Federal University of Espirito Santo | Fernandes F.C.,Institute Estudos do Mar Almirante Paulo Moreira IEAPM | Fernandes L.L.,Federal University of Espirito Santo
Iheringia - Serie Zoologia | Year: 2012

ABSTRACT. The relationships between environmental factors and temporal and spatial variations of benthic communities of three rocky shores of the state of Espírito Santo, Southeast Brazil, were studied. Sampling was conducted every three months, from August 2006 to May 2007, using intersection points. Chthamalus bisinuatus (Pilsbry, 1916) (Crustacea) and Brachidontes spp. (Mollusca) were the most abundant taxa, occupying the upper level of the intertidal zone of the rocky shore. The species richness was higher at the lower levels. The invasive species Isognomon bicolor (C. B. Adams, 1845) (Mollusca) occurred at low densities in the studied areas. The clustering analysis dendrogram indicated a separation of communities based on exposed and sheltered areas. According to the variance analyses, the communities were significantly different among the studied areas and seasons. The extent of wave exposure and shore slope influenced the species variability. The Setibão site showed the highest diversity and richness, most likely due to greater wave exposure. The communities showed greater variation in the lower levels where environmental conditions were less severe, relative to the other levels. Source

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