Accuracy and efficiency evaluation of point-centered quarter method variations for vegetation sampling in an Araucaria forest [Avaliação da eficiência e precisão de variações do método quadrante centrado em um ponto para o levantamento de vegetação em uma floresta de Araucária]
Volpato G.H.,Federal University of Viçosa |
Martins S.V.,Federal University of Viçosa |
Carvalho J.,Institute estudos Ambientais |
dos Anjos L.,State University Londrina
Revista Arvore | Year: 2010
In order to verify Point-Centered Quarter Method (PCQM) accuracy and efficiency, using different numbers of individuals by per sampled area, in 28 quarter points in an Araucaria forest, southern Paraná, Brazil. Three variations of the PCQM were used for comparison associated to the number of sampled individual trees: standard PCQM (SD-PCQM), with four sampled individuals by point (one in each quarter), second measured (VAR1-PCQM), with eight sampled individuals by point (two in each quarter), and third measuring (VAR2-PCQM), with 16 sampled individuals by points (four in each quarter). Thirty-one species of trees were recorded by the SD-PCQM method, 48 by VAR1-PCQM and 60 by VAR2-PCQM. The level of exhaustiveness of the vegetation census and diversity index showed an increasing number of individuals considered by quadrant, indicating that VAR2-PCQM was the most accurate and efficient method when compared with VAR1-PCQM and SD-PCQM.
Buzzetti D.R.C.,University of Sao Paulo |
Belmonte-Lopes R.,Institute Estudos Ambientais |
Belmonte-Lopes R.,Federal University of Paraná |
Reinert B.L.,Institute Estudos Ambientais |
And 4 more authors.
Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia | Year: 2013
Formicivora paludicola sp. nov. (São Paulo Marsh Antwren) is described from 13 specimens (nine males and four females) collected in the municipalities of Mogi das Cruzes, Salesópolis, and São José dos Campos, near the city of São Paulo, in the east of the state of São Paulo, southeastern Brazil. Males of the new species are distinct from those of F. acutirostris (Marsh Antwren), its sister species, by their black underparts and thighs, very dark grayish brown upperparts, and smaller exposed culmen. Females can be distinguished from those of F. acutirostris by the color of the upperparts and flanks, which are also very dark grayish brown, and by the smaller exposed culmen. Mitochondrial DNA sequences also distinguish these two species and the analysis of their vocalizations also showed differences, mainly in the frequency in which certain phrases of the vocal repertoire are used. São Paulo Marsh Antwren inhabits marshes where the vegetation is high (ca. 60-250 cm). The species was found in 15 small and isolated areas, at the headwaters of the rivers Tietê and Paraíba do Sul, at altitudes between 600 and 760 m a.s.l. One of these areas was later flooded by the construction of a dam. Most of the marshes where the new species was found are heavily degraded by sand mining, housing developments, fish farming, drainage for cattle raise and agricultural activities, invasion by exotic plants and fire. We propose urgent measures for the protection of this new species.
Carvalho J.,Federal University of Paraná |
Bocon R.,Institute Estudos Ambientais
Floresta | Year: 2014
An exotic invasive species is one that occurs outside of its natural geographical limits, which adapts and reproduces, and becomes dominant and concessionaire conducted a survey of exotic invasive tree species. The highways serve as a traverse where exotic species are easily dispersed. An inventory of invasive exotic trees (Ordinance N° 125/2009 of the Environmental Institute of Paraná) was carried out at the domain band of this concessionaire, on the highways BR 277, PR 407, and PR 508. 15 species were recorded as well as 3.939 individuals. The greatest instance species were: Pinus sp., Eucalyptus sp., Psidium guajava and Musa sp. These species are located primarily near the housing; there was a correlation between species and altitude. The management and tracking for the control of these species and environmental awareness programs are necessary, avoiding the planting of new subjects by de population and the dispersion in natural places, reestablishing the typical landscape of the present ecosystems on the road.