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Costas R.,Leiden University | Bordons M.,Institute Estudios Documentales sobre Ciencia y Tecnologia IEDCYT
Scientometrics | Year: 2011

Scientific authorship has important implications in science since it reflects the contribution to research of the different individual scientists and it is considered by evaluation committees in research assessment processes. This study analyses the order of authorship in the scientific output of 1,064 permanent scientists at the Spanish CSIC (WoS, 1994-2004). The influence of age, professional rank and bibliometric profile of scientists over the position of their names in the byline of publications is explored in three different research areas: Biology and Biomedicine, Materials Science and Natural Resources. There is a strong trend for signatures of younger researchers and those in the lower professional ranks to appear in the first position (junior signing pattern), while more veteran or highly-ranked ones, who tend to play supervisory functions in research, are proportionally more likely to sign in the last position (senior signing pattern). Professional rank and age have an effect on authorship order in the three fields analysed, but there are inter-field differences. Authorship patterns are especially marked in the most collaboration-intensive field (i.e. Biology and Biomedicine), where professional rank seems to be more significant than age in determining the role of scientists in research as seen through their authorship patterns, while age has a more significant effect in the least collaboration-intensive field (Natural Resources). © 2011 The Author(s).

Gimenez-Toledo E.,Institute Estudios Documentales sobre Ciencia y Tecnologia IEDCYT | Tejada-Artigas C.,Complutense University of Madrid
Profesional de la Informacion | Year: 2012

Publishers of scholarly books about library and information science and communications are analyzed, as well as their publishing processes. The research method was a questionnaire sent to 263 Spanish researchers and teachers in these areas. The survey response rate was 35.5%. Thanks to these responses, main quality indicators for publishers were identified. Researchers' working habits, opinions and attitudes related to the selection, editing and publishing processes of their books are also examined. Finally, as a more pragmatic result, the most prestigious Spanish and foreign publishers are identified.

Costas R.,Leiden University | Van Leeuwen T.N.,Leiden University | Bordons M.,Institute Estudios Documentales sobre Ciencia y Tecnologia IEDCYT
Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology | Year: 2012

This study presents an analysis of the use of bibliographic references by individual scientists in three different research areas. The number and type of references that scientists include in their papers are analyzed, the relationship between the number of references and different impact-based indicators is studied from a multivariable perspective, and the referencing patterns of scientists are related to individual factors such as their age and scientific performance. Our results show inter-area differences in the number, type, and age of references. Within each area, the number of references per document increases with journal impact factor and paper length. Top-performance scientists use in their papers a higher number of references, which are more recent and more frequently covered by the Web of Science. Veteran researchers tend to rely more on older literature and non-Web of Science sources. The longer reference lists of top scientists can be explained by their tendency to publish in high impact factor journals, with stricter reference and reviewing requirements. Long reference lists suggest a broader knowledge on the current literature in a field, which is important to become a top scientist. From the perspective of the "handicap principle theory," the sustained use of a high number of references in an author's oeuvre is a costly behavior that may indicate a serious, comprehensive, and solid research capacity, but that only the best researchers can afford. Boosting papers' citations by artificially increasing the number of references does not seem a feasible strategy. © 2012 ASIS&T.

Costas R.,Leiden University | Van Leeuwen T.N.,Leiden University | Bordons M.,Institute Estudios Documentales sobre Ciencia y Tecnologia IEDCYT
Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology | Year: 2010

The authors set forth a general methodology for conducting bibliometric analyses at the micro level. It combines several indicators grouped into three factors or dimensions, which characterize different aspects of scientific performance. Different profiles or "classes" of scientists are described according to their research performance in each dimension. A series of results based on the findings from the application of this methodology to the study of Spanish National Research Council scientists in Spain in three thematic areas are presented. Special emphasis is made on the identification and description of top scientists from structural and bibliometric perspectives. The effects of age on the productivity and impact of the different classes of scientists are analyzed. The classificatory approach proposed herein may prove a useful tool in support of research assessment at the individual level and for exploring potential determinants of research success. © 2010 ASIS&T.

Costas R.,Institute Estudios Documentales sobre Ciencia y Tecnologia IEDCYT | van Leeuwen T.N.,Leiden University | Bordons M.,Institute Estudios Documentales sobre Ciencia y Tecnologia IEDCYT
Scientometrics | Year: 2010

This paper focuses on the study of self-citations at the meso and micro (individual) levels, on the basis of an analysis of the production (1994-2004) of individual researchers working at the Spanish CSIC in the areas of Biology and Biomedicine and Material Sciences. Two different types of self-citations are described: author self-citations (citations received from the author him/herself) and co-author self-citations (citations received from the researchers' co-authors but without his/her participation). Self-citations do not play a decisive role in the high citation scores of documents either at the individual or at the meso level, which are mainly due to external citations. At micro-level, the percentage of self-citations does not change by professional rank or age, but differences in the relative weight of author and co-author self-citations have been found. The percentage of co-author self-citations tends to decrease with age and professional rank while the percentage of author self-citations shows the opposite trend. Suppressing author self-citations from citation counts to prevent overblown self-citation practices may result in a higher reduction of citation numbers of old scientists and, particularly, of those in the highest categories. Author and co-author self-citations provide valuable information on the scientific communication process, but external citations are the most relevant for evaluative purposes. As a final recommendation, studies considering self-citations at the individual level should make clear whether author or total self-citations are used as these can affect researchers differently. © 2010 The Author(s).

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