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Gamboa-Leon R.,Tulane University | Gonzalez-Ramirez C.,Autonomous University of Yucatan | Padilla-Raygoza N.,Campus Celaya Salvatierra | Sosa-Estani S.,Institute Efectividad Clinica y Sanitaria | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Parasitology

We sought to determine the serological test that could be used for Trypanosoma cruzi seroprevalence studies in Mexico, where lineage I predominates. In a previous study among pregnant women and their newborns in the states of Yucatan and Guanajuato, we reported a 0.8-0.9% of prevalence for T. cruzi-specific antibodies by Stat-Pak and Wiener ELISA. We have expanded this study here by performing an additional non-commercial ELISA and confirming the seropositives with Western blot, using whole antigens of a local parasite strain. We found a seroprevalence of 0.6% (3/500) in Merida and 0.4% in Guanajuato (2/488). The 5 seropositive umbilical cord samples reacted to both non-commercial ELISA and Western blot tests, and only 1 of the maternal samples was not reactive to non-commercial ELISA. A follow-up of the newborns at 10 mo was performed in Yucatan to determine the presence of T. cruzi antibodies in children as evidence of congenital infection. None of the children was seropositive. One newborn from an infected mother died at 2 wk of age of cardiac arrest, but T. cruzi infection was not confirmed. The T. cruzi seroprevalence data obtained with both commercial tests (Stat-Pak and ELISA Wiener) are similar to those from non-commercial tests using a local Mexican strain of T. cruzi. © American Society of Parasitologists 2011. Source

Defago M.D.,Institute Efectividad Clinica y Sanitaria | Defago M.D.,National University of Cordoba | Gu D.,Peking Union Medical College | Hixson J.E.,University of Houston | And 7 more authors.
American Journal of Hypertension

Background We examined the association between 14 endothelial system genes and salt-sensitivity of blood pressure (BP). Methods After a 3-day baseline examination, during which time the usual diet was consumed, 1,906 Chinese participants received a 7-day low-sodium diet (51.3 mmol of sodium/day) followed by a 7-day high-sodium diet (307.8 mmol of sodium/day). BP measurements were obtained at baseline and at the end of each intervention using a random-zero sphygmomanometer. Results The DDAH1 rs11161637 variant was associated with reduced BP salt sensitivity, conferring attenuated systolic BP (SBP) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) decreases from baseline to the low-sodium intervention (both P = 2×10-4). Examination of genotype-sex interactions revealed that this relation was driven by the strong associations observed in men (P for interactions = 1.10×10-4 and 0.008, respectively). When switching from the low-to high-sodium intervention, increases in diastolic BP (DBP) and MAP were attenuated by the COL18A1 rs2838944 minor A allele (P = 1.41×10-4 and 1.55×10-4, respectively). Conversely, the VWF rs2239153 C variant was associated with increased salt sensitivity, conferring larger DBP and MAP reductions during low-sodium intervention (P = 1.22×10-4 and 4.44×10-5, respectively). Ten variants from 3 independent SELE loci displayed significant genotype-sex interactions on DBP and MAP responses to low-sodium (P for interaction = 1.56×10-3 to 1.00×10-4). Among men, minor alleles of 4 correlated markers attenuated BP responses to low-sodium intake, whereas minor alleles of another 4 correlated markers increased BP responses. No associations were observed in women for these variants. Further, qualitative interactions were shown for 2 correlated SELE markers. Conclusions These data support a role for the endothelial system genes in salt sensitivity. © 2013 American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd 2013. All rights reserved. Source

Ciapponi A.,Institute for Clinical Effectiveness and Health Policy | Alison L.,Institute Efectividad Clinica y Sanitaria | Agustina M.,Institute for Clinical Effectiveness and Health Policy | Demian G.,Institute for Clinical Effectiveness and Health Policy | And 2 more authors.
COPD: Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

Background: In the developing world, COPD continues to be an under studied, diagnosed and treated disorder. In the present study, we analyzed the prevalence, mortality and resource utilization of COPD in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) in order to guide future research and public policies. Methods: A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed following MOOSE and PRISMA guidance. We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS, countries' Ministries of Health, proceedings, and doctoral theses from January 1990 to October 2012. We included studies with a validated definition of COPD that assessed the incidence, prevalence, use of health care resources or costs since 1985. Using EROS, a web-based software, pairs of reviewers independently selected, performed quality assessment (using a STROBE-based checklist) and extracted the study data. Discrepancies were resolved by consensus. Arcsine transformations and random-effects model were used for proportion meta-analyses. Results: 26 articles met entry criteria. The pooled COPD prevalence defined by GOLD criteria (11 cities, 6 countries) was 13.4% (95%CI, 10.1-17.1). Most patients suffer mild or moderate COPD and were undertreated according to international guidelines. The prevalence increased by age and was 1.75 times higher in men than women. 35 of every 1,000 hospitalizations were due to COPD, most of high economic cost, and the COPD in-hospital mortality ranged from 6.7% to 29.5%. Conclusions: COPD burden in LAC is high, especially for men and older persons; however few persons had severe disease. COPD patients often received inappropriate treatment and had high exacerbation and hospitalization rates leading to high economic costs. © 2014 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc. Source

Vaccaro C.A.,Section of Colorectal Surgery | Rossi G.L.,Section of Colorectal Surgery | Quintana G.O.,Section of Colorectal Surgery | Soriano E.R.,Clinical Research Committee | And 2 more authors.
Diseases of the Colon and Rectum

BACKGROUND: The advantages associated with the laparoscopic approach are lost when conversion is required. Available predictive models have failed to show external validation. Body surface area is a recently described risk factor not included in these models. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to develop a clinical rule including body surface area for predicting conversion in patients undergoing elective laparoscopic colorectal surgery. DESIGN: This was a prospective cohort study. SETTING: This study was conducted at a single large tertiary care institution. PATIENTS: Nine hundred sixteen patients (mean age, 63.9; range, 14-91 years; 53.2% female) who underwent surgery between January 2004 and August 2011 were identified from a prospective database. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Conversion rate was analyzed related to age, sex, obesity, disease location (colon vs rectum), type of disease (neoplastic vs nonneoplastic), history of previous surgery, and body surface area. A predictive model for conversion was developed with the use of logistic regression to identify independently associated variables, and a simple clinical prediction rule was derived. Internal validation of the model was performed by using bootstrapping. RESULTS: The conversion rate was 9.9% (91/916). Rectal disease, large patient size, and male sex were independently associated with higher odds of conversion (OR, 2.28 95%CI, 1.47-3.46]), 1.88 [1.1-3.44], and 1.87 [1.04-3.24]). The prediction rule identified 3 risk groups: low risk (women and nonlarge males), average risk (large males with colon disease), and high risk (large males with rectal disease). Conversion rates among these groups were 5.7%, 11.3%, and 27.8% (p < 0.001). Compared with the low-risk group, ORs for average- And high-risk groups were 2.17 (1.30-3.62, p = 0.004) and 6.38 (3.57-11.4, p < 0.0001). LIMITATIONS: The study was limited by the lack of external validation. CONCLUSION: This predictive model, including body surface area, stratifies patients with different conversion risks and may help to inform patients, to select cases in the early learning curve, and to evaluate the standard of care. However, this prediction rule needs to be externally validated in other samples (see Video, Supplemental Digital Content 1, http://links.lww.com/DCR/A137). © The ASCRS 2014. Source

This article reflects on barriers to research in family medicine, particularly in Latin American countries. These difficulties are not only related to the lack of family physicians as clinical researchers, but also to their progressive relegation from research on specific diseases or conditions by specialists whose domain is an organ system or disease. In addition, family physicians in Latin America are also loaded with the difficulties imposed by the growing north-south divide between developed and developing countries given that, as compared with developed countries, few studies are conducted in Latin America. While research in Family Medicine is not a lost cause, it requires strong commitment from all academic, political, and social stakeholders dedicated to family medicine as a structural axis of healthcare services in Latin America, to offer primary care research the boost it needs. © 2012 Universidad del Valle, Facultad de Salud. Source

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