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Xalapa de Enríquez, Mexico

Garcia A.A.,Autonomous University of Puebla | Garcia G.A.L.,Autonomous University of Sinaloa | Olivas A.R.,Autonomous University of Sinaloa | Alvarez P.C.,Autonomous University of Sinaloa | And 2 more authors.
Southwestern Entomologist | Year: 2010

The study was conducted to know the host plants of adult insects of lamellicorn beetles related to agricultural areas, such as tropical deciduous forest, spiny forest, and xerophilous brush from the northern region of Sinaloa state, México. The data were collected in the morning and evening from August to October 2008. The 18 adult species collected were included in the genera: Diplotaxis, Phyllophaga, Pelidnota, Cyclocephala, Oxygrylius, Cotinis, Euphoria, and Hybosorus, of which Phyllophaga was the genus with the highest number of host species, with 15 species of plants in total, belonging to 10 plant families. The plants used as food by lamellicorn beetles belong to 26 species and 15 families, of which the Fabacea family was the most visited. Within this family the "bacaporo", Parkinsonia aculeate was preferred by a total of 11 species of beetles. Source

In order to quickly evaluate the conservation status of threatened tree species, we assessed the density and population structure in size categories of Resinanthus aromaticus; an endangered endemic timber tree, in five study sites covering 0.67 ha in central Veracruz. The analysis of population structure was performed using three approaches: the adjustment of population size distribution to the log-normal curve, the proportion of juveniles to adults, and the skewness of population size distributions. Comparing the skewness of population size distributions was the most appropriate method to identify the population in better conservation status. The results of this study indicate that the population density of R. aromaticus shows a reduction of 57 % compared to previous studies and the analysis of population size distributions skewness could be used as a quick method to identify threatened populations of tree species. According to the IUCN Red List criteria, this species should be kept in the category "endangered". Source

Simon O.,Institute Agrobiotecnologia Csic Gobierno Of Navarra Mutilva Baja Spain | Bernal A.,Institute Agrobiotecnologia Csic Gobierno Of Navarra Mutilva Baja Spain | Williams T.,Institute Ecologia Ac Xalapa | Munoz D.,Public University of Navarra | Caballero P.,Public University of Navarra
Pest Management Science | Year: 2015

BACKGROUND: Chrysodeixis chalcites (Esper) is a major pest of tomato in Mediterranean countries and attacks banana in the Canary Islands (Spain). The efficacy of Chrysodeixis chalcites single nucleopolyhedrovirus (ChchSNPV-TF1) was evaluated in plant growth chambers and greenhouse trials performed on tomato and banana plants respectively. Treatments were applied using a compressed air sprayer. RESULTS: Mean (± SE) lethal infection varied from 77±10% to 94±3% in second-instar larvae fed for 2 days on tomato plants treated with 2×106 to 5×107 virus occlusion bodies (OBs) L-1, increasing to ∼100% infection after 7 days. Mortality of larvae collected from banana at different intervals post-application varied from 54±10% to 96±4% in treatments involving 1×108-1×109 OBs L-1, whereas indoxacarb (Steward 30% WG) and Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki (Biobit 16% WP) treatments produced between 22±6% and 32±5% pest mortality. All treatments significantly reduced plant defoliation compared with untreated controls. Application of 1×109 OBs L-1 was 3-4-fold more effective than chemical or B. thuringiensis treatments. Larvae acquired lethal infection more rapidly when feeding on tomato than banana plants, but this difference disappeared following >60min of feeding. CONCLUSION: This information should prove useful in the registration of ChchSNPV-TF1 as a bioinsecticide in the Canary Islands and Europe. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry. Source

Bernal A.,Institute Agrobiotecnologia | Williams T.,Institute Ecologia Ac Xalapa | Hernandez-Suarez E.,Instituto Canario Of Investigaciones Agrarias | Carnero A.,Instituto Canario Of Investigaciones Agrarias | And 3 more authors.
Biological Control | Year: 2013

Chrysodeixis chalcites (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae cause up to 30% production loss in banana crops in the Canary Islands. Larvae of this species are susceptible to a nucleopolyhedrovirus (ChchNPV). This study aimed at evaluating the genetic diversity and bioinsecticidal activity of ChchNPV isolates collected from C. chalcites larvae in the Canary Islands. From a total 97 isolates collected in different banana greenhouses, restriction endonuclease analysis identified five genetic variants that differed slightly from ChchNPV isolates from Netherlands (ChchSNPV-NL) and Almería, Spain (ChchNPV-SP1). Physical maps revealed minimal differences at the genome level, mostly due to variation in the position/existence of restriction sites. ChchSNPV-TF1 was the most prevalent variant, representing 78% of isolates examined, and was isolated at all Canary Island sampling sites. This isolate was the most pathogenic isolate against C. chalcites second instars in terms of concentration-mortality metrics, compared to homologous variants or two heterologous viruses Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) and Anagrapha falcifera multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AnfaMNPV). ChchSNPV-TF1 was also one of the fastest killing variants although no differences were observed in occlusion body production among the different variants in second instars. We conclude that ChchSNPV-TF1 merits further evaluation as the basis for a biological insecticide for control of C. chalcites in banana crops in the Canary Islands. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. Source

Arrizubieta M.,Institute Agrobiotecnologia Csic Upna Gobierno Of Navarra Mutilva Baja Spain | Simon O.,Institute Agrobiotecnologia Csic Upna Gobierno Of Navarra Mutilva Baja Spain | Torres-Vila L.M.,Servicio de Sanidad Vegetal Consejeria de Agricultura DRMAyE Gobierno de Extremadura Merida Spain | Figueiredo E.,University of Lisbon | And 4 more authors.
Pest Management Science | Year: 2015

BACKGROUND: A binary co-occluded mixture (HearSP1B:LB6) of Helicoverpa armigera single nucleopolyhedrovirus (HearNPV) variants was previously found to be highly pathogenic under laboratory conditions. The insecticidal efficacy and persistence of this mixture were determined in greenhouse and field-grown tomato crops in Spain and Portugal. RESULTS: Concentrations of 109-1011 occlusion bodies (OBs) L-1 of HearSP1B:LB6 resulted in 89-100% mortality of larvae on treated tomato plants in growth chambers. In protected tomato crops, application of 1010 OBs L-1 of HearSP1B:LB6 was as effective as Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) and spinosad in reducing the percentage of damaged fruits, and resulted in higher larval mortality than the Bt treatment. In open-field tomato crops, virus treatments were as effective in reducing the percentage of damaged fruit as spinosad, Bt and chlorpyrifos treatments. The persistence of the insecticides on tomato plants was negatively correlated with solar radiation in both field and greenhouse settings. Residual insecticidal activity of OBs on protected tomato crops at 6 days post-application was 55 and 35% higher than that of Bt and spinosad respectively. On field-grown tomato, OB persistence was significantly lower than with spinosad or chlorpyrifos. CONCLUSION: The efficacy and persistence of HearSP1B:LB6 OBs were comparable with those of commercial insecticides in both field and greenhouse tomato crops. Future studies should focus on reducing application rates to determine insecticidal efficacy at lower OB concentrations. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. Source

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