Xalapa de Enríquez, Mexico
Xalapa de Enríquez, Mexico

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Pineda E.,Institute Ecologia | Pineda E.,CSIC - National Museum of Natural Sciences | Lobo J.M.,CSIC - National Museum of Natural Sciences
Global Ecology and Biogeography | Year: 2012

Aim The method used to generate hypotheses about species distributions, in addition to spatial scale, may affect the biodiversity patterns that are then observed. We compared the performance of range maps and MaxEnt species distribution models at different spatial resolutions by examining the degree of similarity between predicted species richness and composition against observed values from well-surveyed cells (WSCs). Location Mexico. Methods We estimated amphibian richness distributions at five spatial resolutions (from 0.083° to 2°) by overlaying 370 individual range maps or MaxEnt predictions, comparing the similarity of the spatial patterns and correlating predicted values with the observed values for WSCs. Additionally, we looked at species composition and assessed commission and omission errors associated with each method. Results MaxEnt predictions reveal greater geographic differences in richness between species rich and species poor regions than the range maps did at the five resolutions assessed. Correlations between species richness values estimated by either of the two procedures and the observed values from the WSCs increased with decreasing resolution. The slopes of the regressions between the predicted and observed values indicate that MaxEnt overpredicts observed species richness at all of the resolutions used, while range maps underpredict them, except at the finest resolution. Prediction errors did not vary significantly between methods at any resolution and tended to decrease with decreasing resolution. The accuracy of both procedures was clearly different when commission and omission errors were examined separately. Main conclusions Despite the congruent increase in the geographic richness patterns obtained from both procedures as resolution decreases, the maps created with these methods cannot be used interchangeably because of notable differences in the species compositions they report. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.


Laundre J.W.,Idaho State University | Laundre J.W.,Institute Ecologia
Ecology | Year: 2010

The predator-prey shell game predicts random movement of prey across the landscape, whereas the behavioral response race and landscape of fear models predict that there should be a negative relationship between the spatial distribution of a predator and its behaviorally active prey. Additionally, prey have imperfect information on the whereabouts of their predator, which the predator should incorporate in its patch use strategy. I used a onepredator-one-prey system, puma (Puma concolor)-mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) to test the following predictions regarding predator-prey distribution and patch use by the predator. (1) Pumas will spend more time in high prey risk/low prey use habitat types, while deer will spend their time in low-risk habitats. Pumas should (2) select large forage patches more often, (3) remain in large patches longer, and (4) revisit individual large patches more often than individual smaller ones. I tested these predictions with an extensive telemetry data set collected over 16 years in a study area of patchy forested habitat. When active, pumas spent significantly less time in open areas of low intrinsic predation risk than did deer. Pumas used large patches more than expected, revisited individual large patches significantly more often than smaller ones, and stayed significantly longer in larger patches than in smaller ones. The results supported the prediction of a negative relationship in the spatial distribution of a predator and its prey and indicated that the predator is incorporating the prey's imperfect information about its presence. These results indicate a behavioral complexity on the landscape scale that can have far-reaching impacts on predator-prey interactions. © 2010 by the Ecological Society of America.


Valiente-Banuet A.,Institute Ecologia | Valiente-Banuet A.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Verdu M.,University of Valencia
Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics | Year: 2013

The relationship between facilitation and evolutionary ecology is poorly understood. We review five issues elucidating how the phylogenetic relatedness of species provides insight into the role of facilitation in community assembly: (a) Are the facilitative interactions more common between species that differ in a regeneration niche? (b) Are facilitative interactions more common between distantly related species? (c) Do communities governed by facilitation (rather than competition) have higher phylogenetic diversity? (d) As facilitated juvenile plants mature, do they compete with their nurses more often if they are closely related to them? (e) How does the phylogenetic signature in a community reveal ecological processes, such as succession, regeneration dynamics, indirect interactions, and coextinction cascades? The evolutionary history of lineages explains the regeneration niche of species, which ultimately determines the facilitation-competition balance and therefore community assembly and dynamics. We apply this framework to the conservation of biodiversity and propose future research avenues. © Copyright ©2013 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.


MacGregor-Fors I.,Institute Ecologia
Landscape and Urban Planning | Year: 2011

Urban ecology is a promising research field that could generate important information to be transferred into practical applications for urban landscape planning and management. However, the lack of homogeneity in technical terms used to describe urban-related sampling sites makes generalizations difficult to establish. After the substantial effort to standardize procedures for quantitatively determining major points along urban gradients using large scales ten years ago, recent studies have proposed novel definitions to define terms related to both habitat and landscape levels with the aim of describing specific study sites within urban systems. In this essay, I discuss the definition of several terms related to sites within urban systems (e.g., urban, suburban, peri-urban, non-urban, ex-urban, rural) and propose straightforward ways to standardize and accurately describe them. Undoubtedly, the use of well-defined terms in urban ecology studies will not only permit a better understanding of the nature of study sites across urban ecology studies and grant the possibility to perform robust comparisons among urban ecology studies, but could also aid policy makers and urban landscape planners and managers to enhance the ecological quality of urban systems around the globe. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.


Patent
Institute Ecologia | Date: 2013-12-13

Provided herein are methods of preventing/controlling phytoparasitic nematodes in migratory and sedentary endoparasites belonging to families Anguinidae, Aphelenchidae, Aphelenchoididae, Criconematidae, Dolichodoridae, Hemicycliophoridae, Heteroderidae, Hoplolaimidae, Iotonchidae, Neotylenchidae, Pratylenchidae, Sphaerulariidae, Tilenchidae, and Tylenchulidae: Suborder Tylenchina; Longidoridae: Suborder Dorylaimina; Trichodoridae: Suborder Diphtherophorina using Paecilomyces carneus. The compositions and processes disclosed herein are useful in the prevention and/or control and/or eradication of phytoparasitic nematodes that infect and/or infest the vast majority of cultures for animal and human consumption, while optimum conditions are created in the soil for improving crop yield, with the option of getting organic products.


Patent
Institute Ecologia | Date: 2016-09-06

The present invention relates to compositions consisting of: (a) at least one ethylene-releasing compound, and (b) at least one fatty acid ester, alone or in combination with one or more excipients, vehicles or additives, and/or (c) one or more noxious agents. The invention also relates to the use of said composition and to methods for controlling parasitic plants and/or hemiparasitic plants that cause infestations in certain trees. The composition of the invention is characterized in that it exhibits a high degree of adhesion to the parasitic and/or hemiparasitic plant is selective and acropetal, and hast excellent stability and water-impermeability, allowing the prolonged and constant release of ethylene.


The invention relates to the method for producing the fungus Paecilomyces spp., and to the uses, methods and nematicide compositions for the prevention and/or control and/or eradication of nematodes that form cysts developing in solanaceae cultures. Said invention includes a system for the application of the fungus combined with the rotation of cultures for effectively and efficiently reducing the viability of the cysts of nematodes in solanaceae cultures.


MacGregor-Fors I.,Institute Ecologia | Payton M.E.,Oklahoma State University
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Ecologists often contrast diversity (species richness and abundances) using tests for comparing means or indices. However, many popular software applications do not support performing standard inferential statistics for estimates of species richness and/or density. In this study we simulated the behavior of asymmetric log-normal confidence intervals and determined an interval level that mimics statistical tests with P(α) = 0.05 when confidence intervals from two distributions do not overlap. Our results show that 84% confidence intervals robustly mimic 0.05 statistical tests for asymmetric confidence intervals, as has been demonstrated for symmetric ones in the past. Finally, we provide detailed user-guides for calculating 84% confidence intervals in two of the most robust and highly-used freeware related to diversity measurements for wildlife (i.e., EstimateS, Distance). © 2013 MacGregor-Fors, Payton.


Patent
Institute Ecologia | Date: 2013-01-15

The present invention relates to compositions consisting of: (a) at least one ethylene-releasing compound, and (b) at least one fatty acid ester, alone or in combination with one or more excipients, vehicles or additives, and/or (c) one or more noxious agents. The invention also relates to the use of said composition and to methods for controlling parasitic plants and/or hemiparasitic plants that cause infestations in certain trees. The composition of the invention is characterized in that it exhibits a high degree of adhesion to the parasitic and/or hemiparasitic plant is selective and acropetal, and hast excellent stability and water-impermeability, allowing the prolonged and constant release of ethylene.


Unlike other migratory hummingbirds in North America, the broad-tailed hummingbird (Selasphorus platycercus) exhibits both long-distance migratory behaviour in the USA and sedentary behaviour in Mexico and Guatemala. We examined the evolution of migration linked to its northward expansion using a multiperspective approach. We analysed variation in morphology, mitochondrial and nuclear DNA, estimated migration rates between migratory and sedentary populations, compared divergence times with the occurrence of Quaternary climate events and constructed species distribution models to predict where migratory and sedentary populations resided during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) and Last Interglacial (LIG) events. Our results are consistent with a recent northward population expansion driven by migration from southern sedentary populations. Phylogeographical analyses and population genetics methods revealed that migratory populations in the USA and sedentary populations in Mexico of the platycercus subspecies form one admixed population, and that sedentary populations from southern Mexico and Guatemala (guatemalae) undertook independent evolutionary trajectories. Species distribution modelling revealed that the species is a niche tracker and that the climate conditions associated with modern obligate migrants in the USA were not present during the LIG, which provides indirect evidence for recent migratory behaviour in broad-tailed hummingbirds on the temporal scale of glacial cycles. The finding that platycercus hummingbirds form one genetic population and that suitable habitat for migratory populations was observed in eastern Mexico during the LIG also suggests that the conservation of overwintering sites is crucial for obligate migratory populations currently facing climate change effects. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

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