Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: BSG-CSO | Phase: ENV.2011.4.2.3-1 | Award Amount: 2.27M | Year: 2012
The COMBIOSERVE consortium aims to identify the conditions and principles of successful community-based conservation in selected locations in Mexico, Brazil and Bolivia, working in partnership with local Civil Society Organisations (CSOs) and indigenous communities. Many Latin American and Caribbean rural and indigenous communities have historically developed strategies to regulate land use and conserve biodiversity whilst enhancing livelihoods and reducing conflicts. This has occurred while new panaceas for conservation and development, such as ecotourism, payments for environmental services, and biodiversity derivatives, have emerged and impacted community dynamics in ways that require urgent analysis. Our analysis will rely on the assessment of past and present trajectories and future scenarios of environmental change; an examination of individual and collective dependence on natural resources and ecosystem services, and analysis of peoples capacity to adapt and be resilient to multiple stressors. We will also assess the cultural traditions, knowledge systems, and institutional arrangements that have allowed communities to devise collective conservation strategies, address social tensions, and resolve resource conflicts. The development of a co-enquiry/advocacy approach will provide significant benefits to local communities and CSOs. The project outcomes will strengthen community conservation and management of natural resources through the design and provision of locally-owned methods and data, and will provide the theoretical and empirical foundations for scaling-up in similar communities and environments. We will scientifically address the opportunities and challenges of biocultural diversity conservation and its role in the resilience of socio-ecological systems, and produce documents for policy and civil society audiences at European and international levels, using varied communication platforms and strategies.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP-SICA | Phase: ENV.2011.2.1.4-1 | Award Amount: 9.01M | Year: 2011
To realise the full potential of tropical forests in climate change mitigation (CCM) & the provision of other ecosystem services in the face of ongoing global change we must improve our understanding of the relationships between biodiversity (BD) and the socio-ecological processes through which we respond & adapt to change. ROBIN will provide information for policy & resource use options under scenarios of socio-economic & climate change to: quantify interactions between terrestrial BD, land use & CCM potential in tropical Latin America; develop scenarios for CCM options by evaluating their effectiveness, unintended effects on other ecosystem services (e.g. disease mitigation) and their socio-ecological consequences. We will achieve this by combining new techniques (including remote sensing) for BD assessments in complex multi-functional landscapes, data-based analyses, integrated modelling & participatory-driven approaches at local & regional scales. Case studies along a gradient of sites in Mesoamerica and Amazonia will be used to develop understanding of the relationships between BD & CCM options & feed policy development. These studies will improve understanding of the options favourable to stakeholders & barriers & drivers affecting adoption of resource management strategies. Key deliverables will be: improved understanding of the role of BD in climate change; participatory-driven strategies & tools for CCM; assessments of the risks & uncertainties associated with CCM options. The main impact of the work will be improved outcomes from CCM & BD protection measures by providing natural resource managers in Latin America with guidance on how BD & ecosystems can be used in CCM without creating new problems. We will provide improved indicators for BD relevant to the Convention on Biological Diversity & the design & implementation of REDD\/\\ schemes, to ensure increased storage of carbon in forests & multi-functional landscapes & decreased rates of BD loss.
Hernandez M.E.,Institute Ecologia |
Marin-Muniz J.L.,University of Veracruz |
Moreno-Casasola P.,Institute Ecologa |
Vazquez V.,Institute Ecologia
International Journal of Biodiversity Science, Ecosystems Services and Management | Year: 2015
Wetlands play an important role in carbon cycling. Perturbation of these ecosystems by human activities causes changes in the soil carbon storage and carbon gaseous emissions. These changes might have important repercussions for global warming. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the conversion of freshwater forested wetlands (FW) to flooded grasslands (FGL) has affected soil carbon cycling. Soil carbon pools and soil organic carbon (SOC) fractions (water-soluble carbon (WSC), hot-water-soluble carbon (HWSC), and HCl/HF soluble carbon (HCl/HF-SC)) were compared between FW and FGL. Additionally, the seasonal dynamic of methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes were monitored in both ecosystems located in the coastal plain of Veracruz State Mexico. In FW, soil organic matter (SOM) concentrations were significantly (P ≤ 0.05) higher than FGL. Soil bulk density (BD) was slightly higher in FGL than FW but it was not significantly different (P ≥ 0.05). The average of WSC and HWSC in FW were not significantly (P ≤ 0.05) different. Total carbon pools (44 cm deep) were not significantly different (P = 0.735). During the dry season, CO2 fluxes (26.38 ± 4.45 g m-2 d-1) in FGL were significantly higher (P = 0.023) than in FW (14.36 ± 5.77 g m-2 d-1). During the rainy and windy seasons, both CH4 and CO2 fluxes were significantly higher (P = 0.000 and P = 0.001) in FGL compared with FW. It was concluded that converting FW to FGL causes loss of SOC and increases carbon gaseous fluxes. © 2014 Taylor & Francis.
Scheffknecht S.,University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna |
Winkler M.,University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna |
Hlber K.,VINCA Vienna Institute for Nature Conservation and Analyses |
Rosas M.M.,Institute Ecologa |
Hietz P.,University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna
Journal of Tropical Ecology | Year: 2010
The distribution of epiphytes differs between branches within tree crowns as well as within habitats. Where the original forests have been lost, shade coffee plantations can be important refuges for epiphytes, but are not suitable for all species. To understand what affects habitat quality, we transplanted 1440 seedlings each of two orchids, one, Lycaste aromatica, restricted to forests, the other, Jacquiniella teretifolia, common on trees in coffee plantations and in forests. Seedling mortality and growth were compared between three forests, three young and three old coffee plantations to test for differences between habitats and to analyse which habitat features affect growth and mortality. In J. teretifolia there was no clear pattern of habitat effect on mortality (c. 0.08 mo 1), but the production of new shoots was higher in coffee plantations than in forests. In L. aromatica, growth rates as well as seedling mortality increased over time. During the last census growth rates in forests (1.8 mm mo 1) were significantly higher than in old (0.9 mm mo 1) and young (1.2 mm mo 1) coffee plantations, and seedling mortality was about four times higher in old (0.10 mo 1) and young (0.11 mo 1) coffee plantations than in forests (0.025 mo 1), which may explain the natural absence of L. aromatica from coffee plantations. Mortality in L. aromatica at individual sites was negatively correlated with bryophyte cover on branches (Pearson r = -0.75) and positively with lichen cover (r = 0.70) and canopy openness (r = 0.75). Branch cover with non-vascular epiphytes, whether directly responsible by improving the water supply to epiphytes or indicative of differences in microclimate, may be a useful indicator of suitable habitats for vascular epiphytes. Copyright © 2009 Cambridge University Press.
Salgado-Maldonado G.,National University of Costa Rica |
Novelo-Turcotte M.T.,National University of Costa Rica |
Vazquez G.,Institute Ecologa |
Caspeta-Mandujano J.M.,University Autnoma Del Estado Of Morelos |
And 2 more authors.
Parasitology | Year: 2014
SUMMARY We investigated a basic generalization in parasite community ecology stating that stochastic processes played a major part in determining the composition of helminth communities of freshwater fish, or on the contrary, if these communities are predictable, diverse and structured species assemblages. We determined the species pool of helminth parasites of a tropical freshwater fish Heterandria bimaculata in its heartland, the upper Río La Antigua basin in east-central Mexico. Approaching our data from the metapopulation standpoint we studied the spatial patterns, and examined the variation in composition and richness of the component communities across different locations. We tested the prediction that helminth species may be recognized as common or rare; and also two hypotheses anticipating depauperate communities and decay of similarity between component communities with increasing distance. We found these communities composed by a highly structured and predictable set of specialist autogenic helminth species that are constant and abundant, dominating all components throughout space. The prediction that it is possible to recognize common and rare species was met. Richer than expected communities were found, as well as highly homogeneous component communities, where neighbouring components were more similar than distant ones. We speculated that the processes shaping the development of these component communities include stable, predictable habitats through time, allowing for a slow gradual dispersion process limited by host and parasite species capabilities. Our study suggests that metapopulation theory can assist in the prediction of community composition and in the understanding of spatial and temporal community variability. © 2014 Cambridge University Press .
Bonilla-Sanchez Y.M.,Institute Ecologia AC |
Serio-Silva J.C.,Institute Ecologa |
Pozo-Montuy G.,Institute Ecologia AC |
Bynum N.,CNRS Center for Marine Biodiversity, Exploitation and Conservation
ORYX | Year: 2010
In the Mexican state of Chiapas the rainforest has been cleared, to make way for crops and extensive cattle ranching, at an annual rate of 12.4% since 2002. The conservation status of the Endangered black howler monkey Alouatta pigra in these fragmented landscapes in north-eastern Chiapas has not previously been examined. We therefore surveyed A. pigra populations in the municipality of Playas de Catazaj during 2004-2006 to obtain population and habitat data for this species in 115 fragments of remnant vegetation. A geographical information system was used to determine the variables (fragment size, and distances to the nearest fragment, human settlement and water body) that could be used to generate an index of habitat potential for A. pigra. We estimated a population of 659 individuals and a mean troop size of 5.0 ± SE 2.3. The adult male : female ratio was 1 : 1.4, the adult female : juvenile ratio 1 : 0.6 and adult female : immature ratio 1 : 0.8. The index of habitat potential indicates that 12% of the fragments have a high conservation potential for A. pigra. This index is a valuable tool for evaluating the conservation status of this species and its habitat, and can be expanded to include additional variables, thus allowing for a more comprehensive assessment. Copyright © 2010 Fauna & Flora International.
Gutierrez-Granados G.,Institute Ecologa |
Dirzo R.,Stanford University
Journal of Tropical Ecology | Year: 2010
The ecological effects of logging in the tropics have been analysed largely in terms of its impacts on species diversity and abundance. However, information is very limited regarding the impact of logging on ecological processes such as species interactions. Here we hypothesize that timber extraction per se, that is, in the absence of hunting, affects the abundance of the frugivorous spider monkey, Ateles geoffroyi, and that this has indirect effects on the recruitment of a predominant tree species, Manilkara zapota, and the diversity of the understorey plant community. We compared logged and unlogged sites, using a paired design. In each management condition we conducted line transects and interviews to evaluate spider monkey abundance and game preferences, respectively. Impact on plant recruitment and understorey diversity were evaluated using 2 2-m plots (N = 320) established under 40 M. zapota tree crowns. No spider monkeys were recorded in logged sites whereas they were abundant (15 8 individuals per man-km) in unlogged sites. Interviews showed that spider monkeys are not hunted by local inhabitants. Logging was correlated with a reduction of the number of M. zapota fruits used by A. geoffroyi; an increase in the number of sites dominated by M. zapota; and a reduction in understorey plant diversity. Our results suggest that the absence of A. geoffroyi in logged sites can indirectly impact plant recruitment and diversity via the disruption of plant-frugivore interactions. Further work is needed to assess if these effects persist over the long term, to define if logging operations affect the overall diversity of tropical forests. Copyright © 2009 Cambridge University Press.
Hernndez L.,Institute Ecologa |
Laundr J.W.,Institute Ecologa |
Gonzlez-Romero A.,Institute Ecologa |
Lpez-Portillo J.,Institute Ecologa |
Grajales K.M.,Institute Ecologa
Journal of Mammalogy | Year: 2011
Numerous studies have been made of rodent population and community dynamics, especially in arid ecosystems. Most have centered on understanding how total and species-specific densities of rodents change over time. The standing biomass each species contributes also is important to the energy available to the mesocarnivore community. Although density and standing biomass are related, how they might differ and if those differences are of importance to community structure and function have not received much attention. We analyzed 12 years of rodent density and body mass data from the Chihuahuan Desert in northern Mexico. Data were collected yearly in spring and fall from radial livetrapping webs. Total density and biomass changed significantly in a parallel manner from year to year, and both were related to precipitation and percent cover of grass and forbs. Based on density and biomass, the rodent community was dominated by 2 or 3 principal species. However, on a species-specific level, the numerically dominant species was a small-bodied granivore (Chaetodipus nelsoni), and a large-bodied folivore (Neotoma albigula) dominated in biomass. As total density increased, the proportion contributed by dominant species decreased. As total biomass increased, the proportion in the 2 dominant species increased and accounted for approximately 80% of total biomass. Over the 12 years of the study, species distributions based on density showed no directional change. In contrast, biomass of the rodent community gradually concentrated in a single, large-bodied folivore, N. albigula. Although total density and biomass responded similarly to precipitation and plant productivity, considerable differences between these 2 characteristics existed in their species-specific contributions to and changes within the community. The significance of these differences relative to foraging strategies and variable feeding opportunities within the community is discussed. © 2011 American Society of Mammalogists.