Boigneville, France
Boigneville, France

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Cozannet P.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Cozannet P.,Institute du vegetal | Primot Y.,Ajinomoto Co. | Gady C.,ADISSEO France SAS | And 5 more authors.
Livestock Science | Year: 2010

In recent years, policies encouraging the production of ethanol from corn or wheat have stimulated an increased production of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) whose nutritional value for pigs is little described. Seventeen wheat DDGS samples were obtained from 7 different plants in Europe from July to September 2007. Each sample was analyzed and 10 representative samples were measured for amino acids (AA) content and their standardized ileal digestibility (SID) in pigs. Lightness score (L) of each DDGS was also measured. Our results indicate a rather stable crude protein content (32.6 to 38.9% DM basis; average: 36.1% DM basis) whereas lysine was the most affected AA with contents ranging between 0.82 and 3.00% of crude protein (CP; N*6.25). In addition, lysine SID was also variable (9 to 82%) with the lowest values observed in DDGS with low lysine level in CP. In fact, samples with low lysine content in CP and low SID of lysine had low lightness values (L < 50) and a subsequent high occurrence of Maillard reactions. Consequently, both lysine content (R = 0.63) and lysine SID (R=0.68) values were positively correlated with lightness and DDGS samples that were lighter in colour had higher total and digestible AA levels. Our data indicate that lysine SID can be accurately predicted from lysine content in CP with a quadratic model (R2 = 0.87) or a linear-plateau model (R2 = 0.80 with a breakpoint for lysine content in CP of 1.9% and SID at plateau of 68%). This also suggests that wheat DDGS with lysine content in CP lower than 1.9% should be avoided in pig diets. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.


Poozesh V.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Castillon P.,Institute du Vegetal | Cruz P.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Bertoni G.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research
Grass and Forage Science | Year: 2010

The effect of surface liming on herbage production in permanent grasslands is rather uncertain. To better understand the effect of liming on the grassland, a study was made with a field experiment and a pot experiment with soil from the same field. In the field, the effects of liming and NPK fertilization on the production and composition of the vegetation were studied. In pots, the effects of liming and phosphate fertilization on different grass species were analysed. The effect of NPK fertilization (+3·96 t ha-1) on the production of the original grassland was greater than that of liming (+0·68 t ha-1), which was only observed (P < 0·05) on the unfertilized plots. Liming increased the total number of species and the proportion of dicotyledons. After replacing the semi-natural community with Dactylis glomerata L., the effects of liming (+2·37 t ha-1) and fertilization (+6·52 t ha-1) were increased. These results, together with those of the pot trial, show the important role of phosphorus in the fertilization effect, and are interpreted as a protective effect of P against aluminium toxicity. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.


Thepot S.,University Paris - Sud | Thepot S.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Restoux G.,University Paris - Sud | Goldringer I.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | And 4 more authors.
Genetics | Year: 2015

Multiparental populations are innovative tools for fine mapping large numbers of loci. Here we explored the application of a wheat Multiparent Advanced Generation Inter-Cross (MAGIC) population for QTL mapping. This population was created by 12 generations of free recombination among 60 founder lines, following modification of the mating system from strict selfing to strict outcrossing using the ms1b nuclear male sterility gene. Available parents and a subset of 380 SSD lines of the resulting MAGIC population were phenotyped for earliness and genotyped with the 9K i-Select SNP array and additional markers in candidate genes controlling heading date. We demonstrated that 12 generations of strict outcrossing rapidly and drastically reduced linkage disequilibrium to very low levels even at short map distances and also greatly reduced the population structure exhibited among the parents. We developed a Bayesian method, based on allelic frequency, to estimate the contribution of each parent in the evolved population. To detect loci under selection and estimate selective pressure, we also developed a new method comparing shifts in allelic frequency between the initial and the evolved populations due to both selection and genetic drift with expectations under drift only. This evolutionary approach allowed us to identify 26 genomic areas under selection. Using association tests between flowering time and polymorphisms, 6 of these genomic areas appeared to carry flowering time QTL, 1 of which corresponds to Ppd-D1, a major gene involved in the photoperiod sensitivity. Frequency shifts at 4 of 6 areas were consistent with earlier flowering of the evolved population relative to the initial population. The use of this new outcrossing wheat population, mixing numerous initial parental lines through multiple generations of panmixia, is discussed in terms of power to detect genes under selection and association mapping. Furthermore we provide new statistical methods for use in future analyses of multiparental populations. © 2015, Genetics Society of America. All rights reserved.


Comar A.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Comar A.,Institute du vegetal | Baret F.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Vienot F.,French Natural History Museum | And 3 more authors.
Remote Sensing of Environment | Year: 2012

This study focuses on the directionality of wheat leaf reflectance as a function of leaf surface characteristics. Wheat leaf BRF measurements were completed under 45° zenith illumination angle in three visible broad spectral bands with a conoscope that provides very high angular resolution data over a large portion of the whole hemisphere, including around the illumination direction. The measurements show a clear anisotropy with a specular lobe in the forward scattering direction and a small but significant hotspot feature in the backward scattering direction. The BRF directional features further depend on the illumination orientation because of the leaf roughness created by longitudinal veins: the specular lobe was more pronounced when the illumination was perpendicular to the veins, while specular reflection was more spread over azimuths for longitudinal illumination. Moreover, a sharp hotspot feature was observed for transversal illumination where the apparent roughness is the largest. The scattering was tentatively decomposed into specular, hotspot and isotropic components. Results showed that the hotspot contribution to the directional hemispherical reflectance factor (DHRF) was marginal conversely to that of the specular component that ranges between 0.036 and 0.050 (absolute DHRF value). The specular component was almost the same in the three visible bands considered. The isotropic component originating from volume scattering was contributing the most to the DHRF and was depending on wavelength, ranging between 0.055 and 0.097 in absolute DHRF value. A simple model was proposed to estimate the volume scattering from the isotropic and the surface components. Consequences of these findings were drawn on the ability to estimate leaf biochemical composition independently from leaf surface scattering, as well as on the interpretation of remote sensing at the canopy level. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.


Cozannet P.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Primot Y.,Ajinomoto Co. | Gady C.,Adisseo France SAS | Metayer J.P.,Institute du Vegetal | And 3 more authors.
British Poultry Science | Year: 2011

1. In recent years, policies encouraging the production of ethanol from maize or wheat have stimulated an increased production of distillers' dried grains with solubles (DDGS) for which the nutritional value for poultry is poorly described, especially in the case of wheat DDGS. 2. DDGS samples (19) were obtained from 7 plants in Europe from June to September 2007. Each sample was analysed for chemical composition and 10 representative samples were measured for amino acid (AA) content and their standardised digestibility (SDD) in caecectomised cockerels. Lightness score (L) of each DDGS was also measured. 3. Results indicated a rather stable crude protein content (327 to 392 g/kg DM) but the AA profile was variable between samples. Lysine (LYS) was the most affected AA with contents ranging between 0·83 and 3·01 g/100 g CP. In addition, only 0·76 of total LYS were free if estimated by the fluoro-dinitro-benzene procedure and 0·85 of total LYS were free if estimated by the furosine procedure. 4. The SDD of LYS was also highly variable (-0·04 to 0·71) with the lowest values observed for DDGS samples with a low LYS content in CP; these latter samples had also a high occurrence of Maillard reactions and low L values (<50). Consequently, both LYS content in CP (r = 0·63) and SDD of LYS (r = 0·64) values were positively related with L. 5. Our data indicate that LYS SDD can be accurately predicted from LYS content in CP according to a quadratic (R2 = 0·94) or a linear-plateau model (R2 = 0·90; breakpoint for 1·9 g/100 g lysine in CP and a 0.63 plateau SDD value). © 2011 British Poultry Science Ltd.


Tetegan M.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Tetegan M.,Institute du Vegetal | Nicoullaud B.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Baize D.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | And 2 more authors.
Geoderma | Year: 2011

The contribution of rock fragments to the soil available water content (SAWC) of stony soil has been quantified by measurements of bulk density and gravimetric water content at different water potentials on rock fragments of different lithologies: flints, cherts, chalks, gaizes and limestones. More than 1000 pebbles (2 cm. <. equivalent diameter of the rock fragment. <. 5 cm) have been sampled in stony soils developed from each of the five lithologies. We demonstrated that the water content at saturation of the studied pebbles was equal to the water content at -100 hPa and to the water content at field capacity. A linear relationship between the water content at -100 hPa and at -15,840 hPa enabled to derive a simple pedotransfer function to determine the available water content of the rock fragments. We also proposed a second simple pedotransfer function, which expresses the available water content from the dry bulk density of the rock fragments only. A simulation at the horizon scale for a loamy-clay stony horizon showed that the SAWC could be strongly misjudged when the rock fragments were not taken into account: for a stony horizon containing 30% of pebbles, the SAWC is underestimated by 5% for chert pebbles and by 33% for chalk pebbles. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.


Picot A.,Institute du Vegetal | Picot A.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Barreau C.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Pinson-Gadais L.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | And 3 more authors.
Critical Reviews in Microbiology | Year: 2010

Fumonisins are mycotoxins mainly produced by two Fusarium species: F. verticillioides and F. proliferatum. These toxins are of great concern due to their widespread contamination in maize and their adverse effects on animal and human health. In the past decade, progress was made in identifying the genes required for fumonisin biosynthesis. Additionally, molecular mechanisms involved in the regulation of fumonisin production have been very recently elucidated. By covering the latest advances concerning the factors modulating fumonisin production, this review aims at presenting an integrated approach of the overall mechanisms involved in the regulation of fumonisin biosynthesis during maize kernel colonization. © 2010 Informa UK Ltd.


PubMed | UK National Institute of Agricultural Botany, Institute du Vegetal, French National Institute for Agricultural Research and University Paris - Sud
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Genetics | Year: 2015

Multiparental populations are innovative tools for fine mapping large numbers of loci. Here we explored the application of a wheat Multiparent Advanced Generation Inter-Cross (MAGIC) population for QTL mapping. This population was created by 12 generations of free recombination among 60 founder lines, following modification of the mating system from strict selfing to strict outcrossing using the ms1b nuclear male sterility gene. Available parents and a subset of 380 SSD lines of the resulting MAGIC population were phenotyped for earliness and genotyped with the 9K i-Select SNP array and additional markers in candidate genes controlling heading date. We demonstrated that 12 generations of strict outcrossing rapidly and drastically reduced linkage disequilibrium to very low levels even at short map distances and also greatly reduced the population structure exhibited among the parents. We developed a Bayesian method, based on allelic frequency, to estimate the contribution of each parent in the evolved population. To detect loci under selection and estimate selective pressure, we also developed a new method comparing shifts in allelic frequency between the initial and the evolved populations due to both selection and genetic drift with expectations under drift only. This evolutionary approach allowed us to identify 26 genomic areas under selection. Using association tests between flowering time and polymorphisms, 6 of these genomic areas appeared to carry flowering time QTL, 1 of which corresponds to Ppd-D1, a major gene involved in the photoperiod sensitivity. Frequency shifts at 4 of 6 areas were consistent with earlier flowering of the evolved population relative to the initial population. The use of this new outcrossing wheat population, mixing numerous initial parental lines through multiple generations of panmixia, is discussed in terms of power to detect genes under selection and association mapping. Furthermore we provide new statistical methods for use in future analyses of multiparental populations.


Melander B.,University of Aarhus | Munier-Jolain N.,CNRS Agroecology Lab | Charles R.,Head of Research Units | Wirth J.,Head of Research Units | And 5 more authors.
Weed Technology | Year: 2013

Noninversion tillage with tine- or disc-based cultivations prior to crop establishment is the most common way of reducing tillage for arable cropping systems with small grain cereals, oilseed rape, and maize in Europe. However, new regulations on pesticide use might hinder further expansion of reduced-tillage systems. European agriculture is asked to become less dependent on pesticides and promote crop protection programs based on integrated pest management (IPM) principles. Conventional noninversion tillage systems rely entirely on the availability of glyphosate products, and herbicide consumption is mostly higher compared to plow-based cropping systems. Annual grass weeds and catchweed bedstraw often constitute the principal weed problems in noninversion tillage systems, and crop rotations concurrently have very high proportions of winter cereals. There is a need to redesign cropping systems to allow for more diversification of the crop rotations to combat these weed problems with less herbicide input. Cover crops, stubble management strategies, and tactics that strengthen crop growth relative to weed growth are also seen as important components in future IPM systems, but their impact in noninversion tillage systems needs validation. Direct mechanical weed control methods based on rotating weeding devices such as rotary hoes could become useful in reduced-tillage systems where more crop residues and less workable soils are more prevalent, but further development is needed for effective application. Owing to the frequent use of glyphosate in reduced-tillage systems, perennial weeds are not particularly problematic. However, results from organic cropping systems clearly reveal that desisting from glyphosate use inevitably leads to more problems with perennials, which need to be addressed in future research. Nomenclature: Catchweed bedstraw, Galium aparine L.; barley, Hordeum vulgare L.; maize, Zea mays L.; oilseed rape, Brassica napus L.; wheat, Triticum aestivum L.


Keller C.,Aix - Marseille University | Guntzer F.,Aix - Marseille University | Barboni D.,Aix - Marseille University | Labreuche J.,Institute du vegetal | Meunier J.-D.,Aix - Marseille University
Comptes Rendus - Geoscience | Year: 2012

The cycles of C and Si are closely related to the weathering of silicates. In both cycles, terrestrial plants make significant contributions to the weathering budget and soil formation. The perturbation of the terrestrial Si cycle by human occupation has become a challenging issue because of possible impact on the equilibrium of aquatic ecosystems and agriculture sustainability. The recycling of Si stored in plants as phytoliths may control the Si cycle in the short-term. A review of the recent literature shows that the biogeochemical cycling of Si that is generally not impacted by atmospheric input or fertilisation, is significantly altered by agriculture through the depletion of the phytoliths pool. We present here new evidence that the exportation of straw can lead to the depletion of the soil phytoliths pool in ∼10 years. In order to maintain the current levels of Si in crops, the contribution of other soil silicates such as clay minerals to the phytoavailable silica pool may become a key parameter, when straw is exported. © 2012 Académie des sciences.

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