Humans and livestock animals at work: Toward a multidisciplinary approach of relational practices [Hommes et animaux d'élevage au travail vers une approche pluridisciplinaire des pratiques relationnelles]
Boivin X.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research |
Boivin X.,VetAgro Sup |
Bensoussan S.,Institute du Porc |
Bensoussan S.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research |
And 11 more authors.
Productions Animales | Year: 2012
The legal status of the animal defined as a "sentient being" involves taking into account both the breeder's and animals' points of view for considering work in livestock productions and the human-animal relationship. Farmers' work efficiency, quality of life and animal welfare are targeted. This review paper focuses on a multidisciplinary approach, in particular between the social sciences and ethology in order to understand and improve husbandry practices critically affecting the human-animal relationship. On the one hand, a working time analysis focused on the human-animal contact, reveals a strong diversity among production systems and farms. The diversity in breeders' profiles, attitudes towards animals and their work with animals and in their husbandry strategies are reported. On the other hand, ethology elaborates a conceptual framework based on the fact that farmers and animals build their relationship from the repeated interactions they display. This relationship allows them to predict the issue of the future interactions. Observing the animal's responses to the human represents a synthetic evaluation tool for evaluating their relationship. Ethological studies showed that humans integrate the relational world of animals. This paper points out the interest of describing and evaluating the existing farmers' relational practices towards animals, and developing new and beneficial ones both for farmers and animals.
The work of pig and poultry farmers: A large diversity of strategies, expectations, durations and productivity [Le travail des éleveurs avicoles et porcins une grande diversité de stratégies, d'attentes, de durée et de productivité]
Martel G.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research |
Depoudent C.,Chambre dAgriculture de Bretagne |
Roguet C.,Institute du porc |
Gallot S.,ITAVI |
Pineau C.,Chambre dAgriculture de la Sarthe
Productions Animales | Year: 2012
Pig and poultry productions are often perceived as "industrial" since animals are kept indoors and the production rhythms are regular. This perception leads to the image of a work organization and duration that follows a similar schedule being consistent between farms. However, studies on the labor in those productions show a wide range of expectations, strategies, durations and work efficiency in relation with structural changes of the sector. In pig production, farm size increases, the use of hired labor also, and small farms disappear, in particular those with sows. In poultry production, the size increase is moderate, the alternative productions are common and farms are less specialized. Those evolutions are compared to European pig production. From an economical point of view all the strategies can be effective, the one reducing the charges, the other maximizing output per worker. At the farm scale, the stu-dies show a large variability of working time between farms in the two type of productions, which is mainly due to facilities and equipment, mechanization, the kind of species bred, batch number but also the role given by the farmer to the unit. Inter- and intraweek work organizations in pig production differ with the batch farrowing system and breeding practices. Finally, job content is changing: development of managerial skills, reduction of exhaustive tasks replaced by supervising tasks, data management and traceability monitoring. To conclude we illustrate the effect of a change in the production system on content, duration, organization and tiredness of the farmer's work.
Dunshea F.R.,University of Melbourne |
Allison J.R.D.,Zoetis Inc. |
Bertram M.,First Choice Livestock |
Boler D.D.,Ohio State University |
And 14 more authors.
Animal | Year: 2013
In most countries, male pigs are physically castrated soon after birth to reduce the risk of boar taint and to avoid behaviours such as fighting and mounting. However, entire male pigs are more feed efficient and deposit less fat than barrows. In addition, many animal welfare organizations are lobbying for a cessation of castration, with a likelihood that this could lead to inferior pork unless an alternative method is used to control boar taint. An alternative to physical castration is immunization against gonadotrophin releasing factor (GnRF) which allows producers to capitalize on the superior feed efficiency and carcass characteristics of boars without the risk of boar taint. From a physiological perspective, immunized pigs are entire males until shortly after the second dose, typically given 4 to 6 weeks before slaughter. Following full immunization, there is a temporary suppression of testicular function and a hormonal status that resembles that of a barrow. Nutrient requirements will be different in these two phases, before and after full immunization. Given that there have been few published studies comparing the lysine requirements of entire males and barrows in contemporary genotypes, it is useful to use gilt requirements as a benchmark. A series of meta-analyses comparing anti-GnRF immunized boars and physical castrates and use of nutritional models suggest that the lysine requirement of entire males before the second immunization is 5% higher than for gilts, from 25 to 50 kg BW, and by 8% from 50 to 95 kg. Given that the penalty in growth performance for having inadequate dietary lysine is greater in males than in gilts or barrows, it is important to ensure that lysine requirements are met to obtain the maximum benefits of entire male production during this phase. After the second immunization, the lysine requirement of immunized males decreases and may become more like that of barrows. In addition, a consistent effect of full immunization is a marked increase in voluntary feed intake from about 10 days after the second dose. Putting these together, the estimated lysine requirement, expressed in terms of diet composition, falls to 94% of the gilt level. Although general principles can be described now, further research is needed to fully define the lysine requirements of immunized boars. It is important that the temporal pattern of tissue deposition rates and feed intake be explored to be incorporated into models to predict nutrient requirements over the period of rapidly changing metabolism. © The Animal Consortium 2013.
Robic A.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research |
Larzul C.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research |
Grindflek E.,NORSVIN |
Chevillon P.,Institute du porc |
And 6 more authors.
Journal of Animal Breeding and Genetics | Year: 2012
A quantitative trait loci (QTL) for accumulation of androstenone in fat has been identified in an Large White×Meishan cross in a region of SSC7-containing TEAD3. In humans, TEAD3 is a transcription activator, known to be able to regulate the transcription of HSD3B. This enzyme is involved in the degradation of androstenone in the liver. In this study, porcine transcripts of TEAD3 were characterized and compared with mammalian transcripts. The complete structure of porcine TEAD3 gene was characterized including two 5′ non-coding exons and one exon 5 not used in porcine transcripts. Variations were screened in sequences related to TEAD3: in exons, in flanking sequences of exons and in the promoter region. A SNP characterized at 726bp at 5′ of the first exon was tested on several pig populations without coherent and convincing results concerning its association with androstenone levels. We showed that in the liver of adult boars, the transcripts levels of TEAD3 and HSD3B were correlated. As in humans, it is possible that HSD3B is a target gene of TEAD3 in porcine liver. Nevertheless, no expression variation was observed for TEAD3 or HSD3B in liver between animals with different genotypes at the SNP. We concluded that this SNP was not the causal mutation of this QTL. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Boitard S.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research |
Chevalet C.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research |
Mercat M.-J.,Institute du Porc |
Meriaux J.C.,LABOGENA |
And 3 more authors.
Animal Genetics | Year: 2010
The Spanish and French pig populations share the common practice of quasi systematic paternity control of pure breed and composite line males. Ten microsatellite markers are in common between Spain and France controls, among the 17 markers used in France and the 13 used in Spain. After the adjustment of allele sizes, it is possible to merge the two datasets and to obtain a set of 5791 animals, including the vast majority of the males in the Duroc, Landrace, Large White and Piétrain French and Spanish breeds. Twelve French composite lines are also available. The genetic diversity analysis of these pig populations is presented, as well as the assignment of an individual to its breed. The effects of heterogeneous sampling across time and of relatedness among animals are also assessed. Consistent with the results of the previous studies, we found that different populations from the same breed clearly clustered together. In addition, all populations of this study, whether purebred or composite, are quite well differentiated from the other ones. As a result, we note that the 10 microsatellites commonly used for paternity control ensure a powerful detection of the breed of origin, with the power of detection being 95-99%. The detection of the exact population within breed is more difficult, but the power exceeds 70% for most of the populations. Practical implications include, for instance, the detection of outlier animals, crosses and admixture events. © 2010 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.
PubMed | Institute du porc, Terres Inovia, Institute Of Lelevage, ARVALIS Institute du vegetal and Agrocampus Ouest
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2016
Feeds contribute highly to environmental impacts of livestock products. Therefore, formulating low-impact feeds requires data on environmental impacts of feed ingredients with consistent perimeters and methodology for life cycle assessment (LCA). We created the ECOALIM dataset of life cycle inventories (LCIs) and associated impacts of feed ingredients used in animal production in France. It provides several perimeters for LCIs (field gate, storage agency gate, plant gate and harbour gate) with homogeneously collected data from French R&D institutes covering the 2005-2012 period. The dataset of environmental impacts is available as a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet on the ECOALIM website and provides climate change, acidification, eutrophication, non-renewable and total cumulative energy demand, phosphorus demand, and land occupation. LCIs in the ECOALIM dataset are available in the AGRIBALYSE database in SimaPro software. The typology performed on the dataset classified the 149 average feed ingredients into categories of low impact (co-products of plant origin and minerals), high impact (feed-use amino acids, fats and vitamins) and intermediate impact (cereals, oilseeds, oil meals and protein crops). Therefore, the ECOALIM dataset can be used by feed manufacturers and LCA practitioners to investigate formulation of low-impact feeds. It also provides data for environmental evaluation of feeds and animal production systems. Included in AGRIBALYSE database and SimaPro, the ECOALIM dataset will benefit from their procedures for maintenance and regular updating. Future use can also include environmental labelling of commercial products from livestock production.
Temple D.,Edifici V Unitat dEtologia Despatx V |
Temple D.,IRTA - Institute of Agricultural-Alimentary Research and Technology |
Courboulay V.,Institute du Porc |
Velarde A.,IRTA - Institute of Agricultural-Alimentary Research and Technology |
And 2 more authors.
Animal Welfare | Year: 2012
This study was carried out to compare the health of growing pigs in five different production systems in France and Spain using measures provided by the Welfare Quality® protocol. A total of 11,647 pigs housed on 91 commercial farms were evaluated over a two-year period (2007-2009). Farms considered as conventional were close to the European dominant production system, rearing 'white' pigs (eg Large White; Landrace - Pietrain) housed on concrete floors. Systems considered as differentiated had specifications to distinguish them from the conventional one. Farms that housed 'white' breeds of pigs on straw were then considered as a different production system. Mallorcan Black pigs managed extensively on family farms in the Balearic islands represented a third production system. The remaining two systems assessed were represented by the methods used for Iberian pig rearing extensively or intensively. Multiple Generalised Linear Mixed Models were performed for each animal-based measure of health. The straw-bedded and the conventional systems did not differ in the prevalence of any animal-based measures. Mallorcan Black pigs and Iberian pigs kept extensively had a lower prevalence of severe wounds than pigs in the conventional system and the lowest prevalence of tail biting. Focusing on pigs housed in the conventional system, several possible causal factors (such as the feeding system and the type of floor) were identified relating to severe wounds, tail biting and lameness. Therefore, the recording of simple environmental-based factors can be useful in detecting farms that are more likely to show these problems. © 2012 Universities Federation for Animal Welfare.
Quiniou N.,Institute du Porc |
Monziols M.,Institute du Porc |
Colin F.,Pfizer |
Goues T.,Institute du Porc |
Courboulay V.,Institute du Porc
Animal | Year: 2012
For centuries, entire male pigs have been castrated to reduce the risk of boar taint. However, physical castration of pig is increasingly being questioned with regard to animal welfare considerations. Immunization against gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH) provides an alternative to physical castration. Using the currently available commercial product (Improvac®; Pfizer Animal Health), a two-dose regimen of a GnRH vaccine is administered. After the second vaccination, a substantial increase in feed consumption has been reported, which may be associated with increased body fatness and decreased feed efficiency when compared with unvaccinated entire male pigs. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of a feed restriction on these traits and on the behaviour of 120 group-housed entire males (five pigs/pen) vaccinated against GnRH. The first vaccination was performed at 62 days of age and the second (V2) at 130 days of age. Pigs were slaughtered in two batches 4 to 5 weeks after V2. They were either offered feed ad libitum over the 22 to 114 kg BW range (AL treatment) or ad libitum up to a maximum of 2.50 (R2.50 treatment) or 2.75 kg/day per pig (R2.75 treatment). Behavioural observations and skin lesion scoring were conducted 1 week before V2, and 1 and 3 weeks after V2. At slaughter, the volumetric lean meat content was measured using an X-ray computed tomography scanner. Between V2 and slaughter, the average feed intakes for the R2.75 and R2.50 treatments were 15% and 22% lower than the average AL feed intake (3.20 kg/day), respectively. Feed restriction was associated with a reduced average daily gain after V2 (846, 932 and 1061 g/day in the R2.50, R2.75 and AL groups, P < 0.01) but had no effect on the feed conversion ratio (3.00 kg feed/kg BW gain on average, P = 0.62). No difference was observed in the lean meat content (71.8%, 70.7% and 70.4% in the R2.50, R2.75 and AL groups, P = 0.14), despite a reduced backfat thickness measured in restrictively fed pigs (12.0, 13.0 and 13.6 mm in the R2.50, R2.75 and AL groups, P < 0.01). Higher skin lesion scores were observed 3 weeks after V2 in R2.50 and R2.75 pigs than in the AL ones (scores 33.4, 27.7 and 25.5, respectively, P = 0.04). These results, combined with an unimproved feed efficiency and no marked change in carcass characteristics, suggest that immunologically castrated pigs should not be restrictively fed during the late finishing period. © The Animal Consortium 2011.