Institute du Fer a Moulin

Paris, France

Institute du Fer a Moulin

Paris, France
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Fourniol F.J.,Institute of Structural and Molecular Biology | Sindelar C.V.,Brandeis University | Amigues B.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | Clare D.K.,Institute of Structural and Molecular Biology | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Cell Biology | Year: 2010

Microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs) are essential for regulating and organizing cellular microtubules (MTs). However, our mechanistic understanding of MAP function is limited by a lack of detailed structural information. Using cryo-electron microscopy and single particle algorithms, we solved the 8 Å structure of doublecortin (DCX)-stabilized MTs. Because of DCX's unusual ability to specifically nucleate and stabilize 13-protofilament MTs, our reconstruction provides unprecedented insight into the structure of MTs with an in vivo architecture, and in the absence of a stabilizing drug. DCX specifically recognizes the corner of four tubulin dimers, a binding mode ideally suited to stabilizing both lateral and longitudinal lattice contacts. A striking consequence of this is that DCX does not bind the MT seam. DCX binding on the MT surface indirectly stabilizes conserved tubulin-tubulin lateral contacts in the MT lumen, operating independently of the nucleotide bound to tubulin. DCX's exquisite binding selectivity uncovers important insights into regulation of cellular MTs. © 2010 Fourniol et al.

Fuchs T.,Mount Sinai School of Medicine | Saunders-Pullman R.,Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center | Saunders-Pullman R.,Yeshiva University | Masuho I.,Scripps Research Institute | And 17 more authors.
Nature Genetics | Year: 2013

Dystonia is a movement disorder characterized by repetitive twisting muscle contractions and postures. Its molecular pathophysiology is poorly understood, in part owing to limited knowledge of the genetic basis of the disorder. Only three genes for primary torsion dystonia (PTD), TOR1A (DYT1), THAP1 (DYT6) and CIZ1 (ref. 5), have been identified. Using exome sequencing in two families with PTD, we identified a new causative gene, GNAL, with a nonsense mutation encoding p.Ser293* resulting in a premature stop codon in one family and a missense mutation encoding p.Val137Met in the other. Screening of GNAL in 39 families with PTD identified 6 additional new mutations in this gene. Impaired function of several of the mutants was shown by bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) assays. © 2013 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved.

Girault J.-A.,Institute du Fer A Moulin | Girault J.-A.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Girault J.-A.,University Pierre and Marie Curie
Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science | Year: 2012

The striatum is a deep region of the forebrain involved in action selection, control of movement, and motivation. It receives a convergent excitatory glutamate input from the cerebral cortex and the thalamus, controlled by dopamine (DA) released in response to unexpected rewards and other salient stimuli. Striatal function and its dysfunction in drug addiction or Parkinson's disease depend on the interplay between these neurotransmitters. Signaling cascades in striatal medium-sized spiny neurons (MSNs) involve multiple kinases, phosphatases, and phosphoproteins, some of which are highly enriched in these neurons. They control the properties of ion channels and the plasticity of MSNs, in part through their effects on gene transcription. This chapter summarizes signaling in MSNs and focuses on the regulation of multiple protein phosphatases through DA and glutamate receptors and the role of ERK. It is hypothesized that these pathways are particularly adapted to the specific computing properties of MSNs and the function of the basal ganglia circuits in which they participate. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.

Lecca S.,Institute du Fer a Moulin | Lecca S.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Lecca S.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | Meye F.J.,Institute du Fer a Moulin | And 5 more authors.
European Journal of Neuroscience | Year: 2014

The lateral habenula (LHb) is an epithalamic region with a crucial role in the regulation of midbrain monoaminergic systems. Over the past few years a renewed interest in the LHb has emerged due to studies highlighting its central role in encoding rewarding and aversive aspects of stimuli. Moreover, an increasing number of functional as well as behavioral indications provide substantial evidence supporting a role of LHb in neuropsychiatric diseases, including mood disorders and drug addiction. Cellular and synaptic adaptations in the LHb may therefore represent a critical phenomenon in the etiology of these diseases. In the current review we describe the anatomical and functional connections allowing the LHb to control the dopamine and serotonin systems, as well as possible roles of these connections in motivated behaviors and neuropsychiatric disorders. Finally, we discuss how drug exposure and stressful conditions alter the cellular physiology of the LHb, highlighting a role for the LHb in the context of drug addiction and depression. © 2014 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Chauvin S.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Chauvin S.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | Chauvin S.,Institute du Fer a Moulin | Sobel A.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | And 2 more authors.
Progress in Neurobiology | Year: 2015

Nervous system development, plasticity and regeneration require numerous, coordinated and finely tuned subcellular mechanisms. Phosphoproteins of the stathmin family, originally identified as intracellular signal relay proteins, are mostly or exclusively expressed in the nervous system with a high level of expression during brain development. Vertebrate stathmins 1-4 all possess a C-terminal "stathmin-like domain" that binds or releases tubulin in a phosphorylation dependent way, and hence participates in the control of microtubule dynamics, an essential process for neuronal differentiation. Contrary to stathmin 1, stathmins 2-4 possess an N-terminal extension whose reversible palmitoylation specifically targets them to the Golgi and intracellular membranes. Regulation of stathmins 2-4 palmitoylation is therefore an important regulatory mechanism that controls their shuttling to various neuronal compartments where they can then act locally. Expression of stathmins is upregulated during neuronal differentiation and plasticity, and altered in numerous neurodegenerative diseases. Experimental perturbation of stathmins expression in Drosophila or in neurons in culture revealed their importance in neuronal growth and differentiation, each stathmin fulfilling at least partially distinct and likely complementary roles. On the other hand, knock-out of stathmins in mice, with the exception of stathmin 2, resulted in mostly mild or no detected phenotype, revealing likely compensations among stathmins. Altogether, through their combinatorial expression and regulation by phosphorylation and by palmitoylation, and through their interactions with tubulin and other neuronal protein targets, the various stathmins appear as essential regulators of neuronal differentiation at the various stages during development and plasticity of the nervous system. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Khalaf-Nazzal R.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Khalaf-Nazzal R.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | Khalaf-Nazzal R.,Institute du Fer a Moulin | Francis F.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | And 2 more authors.
Neuroscience | Year: 2013

The hippocampus, derived from medial regions of the telencephalon, constitutes a remarkable brain structure. It is part of the limbic system, and it plays important roles in information encoding, related to short-term and long-term memory, and spatial navigation. It has also attracted the attention of many clinicians and neuroscientists for its involvement in a wide spectrum of pathological conditions, including epilepsy, intellectual disability, Alzheimer disease and others. Here we address the topic of hippocampal development. As well as original landmark findings, modern techniques such as large-scale in situ hybridizations, in utero electroporation and the study of mouse mutants with hippocampal phenotypes, add further detail to our knowledge of the finely regulated processes which form this intricate structure. Molecular signatures are being revealed related to field, intra-field and laminar cell identity, as well as, cell compartments expressing surface proteins instrumental for connectivity. We summarize here old and new findings, and highlight elegant tools used to fine-study hippocampal development. © 2013 IBRO.

Meye F.J.,Institute du Fer A Moulin | Meye F.J.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Meye F.J.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | Adan R.A.H.,University Utrecht
Trends in Pharmacological Sciences | Year: 2014

Overconsumption of high caloric food plays an important role in the etiology of obesity. Several factors drive such hedonic feeding. High caloric food is often palatable. In addition, when an individual is sated, stress and food-related cues can serve as potent feeding triggers. A better understanding of the neurobiological underpinnings of food palatability and environmentally triggered overconsumption would aid the development of new treatment strategies. In the current review we address the pivotal role of the mesolimbic dopamine reward system in the drive towards high caloric palatable food and its relation to stress- and cue-induced feeding. We also discuss how this system may be affected by both established and potential anti-obesity drug targets. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Meye F.J.,Institute du Fer A Moulin | Meye F.J.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Meye F.J.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | Ramakers G.M.J.,University Utrecht | Adan R.A.H.,University Utrecht
Translational Psychiatry | Year: 2014

The midbrain dopamine system has an important role in processing rewards and the stimuli associated with them, and is implicated in various psychiatric disorders. This system is tightly regulated by various G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). It is becoming increasingly clear that these receptors are not only activated by (endogenous) agonists but that they also exhibit agonist-independent intrinsic constitutive activity. In this review we highlight the evidence for the physiological role of such constitutive GPCR activity (in particular for cannabinoid 1, serotonin 2C and mu-opioid receptors) in the ventral tegmental area and in its output regions like the nucleus accumbens. We also address the behavioral relevance of constitutive GPCR signaling and discuss the repercussions of its abolition in dopamine-related psychiatric diseases. © 2014 the American College of Gastroenterology All rights reserved.

Herve D.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Herve D.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | Herve D.,Institute du Fer a Moulin
Frontiers in Neuroanatomy | Year: 2011

In the principal neurons of striatum (medium spiny neurons, MSNs), cAMP pathway is primarily activated through the stimulation of dopamine D1 and adenosine A 2A receptors, these receptors being mainly expressed in striatonigral and striatopallidal MSNs, respectively. Since cAMP signaling pathway could be altered in various physiological and pathological circumstances, including drug addiction and Parkinson's disease, it is of crucial importance to identify the molecular components involved in the activation of this pathway. In MSNs, cAMP pathway activation is not dependent on the classical Gs GTP-binding protein but requires a specific G protein subunit heterotrimer containing Gαolf/β2/γ7 in particular association with adenylyl cyclase type 5. This assembly forms an authentic functional signaling unit since loss of one of its members leads to defects of cAMP pathway activation in response to D1 or A 2A receptor stimulation, inducing dramatic impairments of behavioral responses dependent on these receptors. Interestingly, D1 receptor (D1R)-dependent cAMP signaling is modulated by the neuronal levels of Gαolf, indicating that Gαolf represents the rate-limiting step in this signaling cascade and could constitute a critical element for regulation of D1R responses. In both Parkinsonian patients and several animal models of Parkinson's disease, the lesion of dopamine neurons produces a prolonged elevation of Gαolf levels. This observation gives an explanation for the cAMP pathway hypersensitivity to D1R stimulation, occurring despite an unaltered D1R density. In conclusion, alterations in the highly specialized assembly of Gαolf/β2/γ7 subunits can happen in pathological conditions, such as Parkinson's disease, and it could have important functional consequences in relation to changes in D1R signaling in the striatum. © 2011 Hervé.

Gaspar P.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Gaspar P.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | Gaspar P.,Institute du Fer a Moulin | Lillesaar C.,French National Center for Scientific Research
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences | Year: 2012

The serotonin (5-HT) system is generally considered as a single modulatory system, with broad and diffuse projections. However, accumulating evidence points to the existence of distinct cell groups in the raphe. Here, we review prior evidence for raphe cell heterogeneity, considering different properties of 5-HT neurons, from metabolism to anatomy, and neurochemistry to physiology. We then summarize more recent data in mice and zebrafish that support a genetic diversity of 5-HT neurons, based on differential transcription factor requirements for the acquisition of the 5-HT identity. In both species, PET1 plays a major role in the acquisition and maintenance of 5-HT identity in the hindbrain, although some 5-HT neurons do not require PET1 for their differentiation, indicating the existence of several transcriptional routes to become serotoninergic. In mice, both PET1- dependent and -independent 5-HT neurons are located in the raphe, but have distinct anatomical features, such as the morphology of axon terminals and projection patterns. In zebrafish, all raphe neurons express pet1, but Pet1-independent 5-HT cell groups are present in the forebrain. Overall, these observations support the view that there are a number of distinct 5-HT subsystems, including within the raphe nuclei, with unique genetic programming and functions. © 2012 The Royal Society.

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