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Sanchez C.,Lundbeck | Artigas F.,Institute Dinvestigacions Biomediques Of Barcelona Iibb | Artigas F.,Research Center Biomedica En Red Of Salud Mental Cibersam | Artigas F.,Institute dinvestigacions Biomediques August Pi i Sunyer IDIBAPS
Pharmacology and Therapeutics | Year: 2015

Vortioxetine, a novel antidepressant for the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD), is a 5-HT3, 5-HT7 and 5-HT1D receptor antagonist, 5-HT1B receptor partial agonist, 5-HT1A receptor agonist and serotonin (5-HT) transporter (SERT) inhibitor. Here we review its preclinical and clinical properties and discuss translational aspects. Vortioxetine increases serotonergic, noradrenergic, dopaminergic, cholinergic, histaminergic and glutamatergic neurotransmission in brain structures associated with MDD. These multiple effects likely derive from its interaction with 5-HT-receptor-mediated negative feedback mechanisms controlling neuronal activity. In particular, 5-HT3 receptors may play a prominent role, since their blockade i) increases pyramidal neuron activity by removing 5-HT3 receptor-mediated excitation of GABA interneurons, and ii) augments SSRI effects on extracellular 5-HT. However, modulation of the other 5-HT receptor subtypes also likely contributes to vortioxetine's pharmacological effects. Preclinical animal models reveal differences from SSRIs and SNRIs, including antidepressant-like activity, increased synaptic plasticity and improved cognitive function. Vortioxetine had clinical efficacy in patients with MDD: 11 placebo-controlled studies (including one in elderly) with efficacy in 8 (7 positive, 1 supportive), 1 positive active comparator study plus a positive relapse prevention study. In two positive studies, vortioxetine was superior to placebo in pre-defined cognitive outcome measures. The clinically effective dose range (5-20 mg/day) spans ~50 to >80% SERT occupancy. SERT and 5-HT3 receptors are primarily occupied at 5 mg, while at 20 mg, all targets are likely occupied at functionally relevant levels. The side-effect profile is similar to that of SSRIs, with gastrointestinal symptoms being most common, and a low incidence of sexual dysfunction and sleep disruption possibly ascribed to vortioxetine's receptor modulation. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.

De La Rosa X.,Institute Dinvestigacions Biomediques Of Barcelona Iibb | Cervera A.,Institute dInvestigacions Biomediques August Pi i Sunyer | Cervera A.,Functional Stroke Unit | Kristoffersen A.K.,ICFO - Institute of Photonic Sciences | And 9 more authors.
Stroke | Year: 2014

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE-: Several lines of evidence support the involvement of mannose-binding lectin (MBL) in stroke brain damage. The lectin pathway of the complement system facilitates thrombin activation and clot formation under certain experimental conditions. In the present study, we examine whether MBL promotes thrombosis after ischemia/reperfusion and influences the course and prognosis of ischemic stroke. METHODS-: Middle cerebral artery occlusion/reperfusion was performed in MBL-deficient (n=85) and wild-type (WT; n=83) mice, and the brain lesion was assessed by MRI at days 1 and 7. Relative cerebral blood flow was monitored up to 6 hours after middle cerebral artery occlusion with laser speckle contrast imaging. Fibrin(ogen) was analyzed in the brain vasculature and plasma, and the effects of thrombin inhibitor argatroban were evaluated to assess the role of MBL in thrombin activation. RESULTS-: Infarct volumes and neurological deficits were smaller in MBL knockout mice than in WT mice. Relative cerebral blood flow values during middle cerebral artery occlusion and at reperfusion were similar in both groups, but decreased during the next 6 hours in the WT group only. Also, the WT mice showed more fibrin(ogen) in brain vessels and a better outcome after argatroban treatment. In contrast, argatroban did not improve the outcome in MBL knockout mice. CONCLUSIONS-: MBL promotes brain damage and functional impairment after brain ischemia/reperfusion in mice. These effects are secondary to intravascular thrombosis and impaired relative cerebral blood flow during reperfusion. Argatroban protects WT mice, but not MBL knockout mice, emphasizing a role of MBL in local thrombus formation in acute ischemia/reperfusion. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

Scorza M.C.,Institute Investigaciones Biologicas Clemente Estable | Castane A.,Institute Dinvestigacions Biomediques Of Barcelona Iibb | Castane A.,Research Center Biomedica En Red Of Salud Mental Cibersam | Bortolozzi A.,Institute Dinvestigacions Biomediques Of Barcelona Iibb | And 3 more authors.
Neuropharmacology | Year: 2010

5-HT1A receptors mediate some effects of atypical antipsychotic drugs, such as the increase in cortical dopaminergic function, an effect likely related to the superior efficacy of these drugs on negative symptoms and cognitive deficits of schizophrenia. To examine whether 5-HT1A receptors are involved in the therapeutic action of clozapine (Clz) on positive symptoms, here we examined the ability of Clz to antagonize the behavioural syndrome induced by the non-competitive N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antagonist, MK-801 in wild-type (WT) and 5-HT1A-receptor knockout (KO1A) mice.MK-801 administration induced hyperlocomotion, ataxia, stereotypies and an alteration of the locomotor pattern in both genotypes. However, some symptoms of the behavioural syndrome induced by MK-801 were less intense in KO1A mice compared with wild-type mice. Clz antagonized the majority of MK-801-induced effects in both strains of mice. No differences between genotypes were noted for the ability of Clz to antagonize the hyperlocomotion, yet Clz was more effective in preventing the increased activation time, short movements, circling behaviour and hind-limb abduction in KO1A mice.The present results indicate that 5-HT1A receptors do not play a critical role in Clz-induced antagonism of the main hyperactivity signs evoked by MK-801, suggesting that 5-HT1A receptors are not involved in the therapeutic action of Clz on positive symptoms of schizophrenia. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Cristofol R.,Institute Dinvestigacions Biomediques Of Barcelona Iibb | Porquet D.,University of Barcelona | Corpas R.,Institute Dinvestigacions Biomediques Of Barcelona Iibb | Coto-Montes A.,University of Oviedo | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Pineal Research | Year: 2012

The senescence-accelerated prone 8 (SAMP8) mouse strain shows early cognitive loss that mimics the deterioration of learning and memory in the elderly and is widely used as an animal model of aging. SAMP8 mouse brain suffers oxidative stress, as well as tau- and amyloid-related pathology. Mitochondrial dysfunction and the subsequent increase in cellular oxidative stress are central to the aging processes of the organism. Here, we examined the mitochondrial status of neocortical neurons cultured from SAMP8 and senescence-accelerated-resistant (SAMR1) mice. SAMP8 mouse mitochondria showed a reduced membrane potential and higher vulnerability to inhibitors and uncouplers than SAMR1 mitochondria. dl-buthionine-[S,R]-sulfoximine (BSO) caused greater oxidative damage in neurons from SAMP8 mice than in those from SAMR1 mice. This increased vulnerability, indicative of frailty-associated senescence, was protected by the anti-aging agents melatonin and resveratrol. The sirtuin 1 inhibitor, sirtinol, demonstrated that the neuroprotection against BSO was partially mediated by increased sirtuin 1 expression. Melatonin, like resveratrol, enhanced sirtuin 1 expression in neuron cultures of SAMR1 and SAMP8 mice. Therefore, a deficiency in the neuroprotection and longevity of the sirtuin 1 pathway in SAMP8 neurons may contribute to the early age-related brain damage in these mice. This supports the therapeutic use of sirtuin 1-enhancing agents against age-related nerve cell dysfunction and brain frailty. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

Zaouali M.A.,Institute Dinvestigacions Biomediques Of Barcelona Iibb | Boncompagni E.,Institute Dinvestigacions Biomediques Of Barcelona Iibb | Reiter R.J.,University of Texas at San Antonio | Bejaoui M.,Institute Dinvestigacions Biomediques Of Barcelona Iibb | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Pineal Research | Year: 2013

Ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI) associated with liver transplantation plays an important role in the induction of graft injury. Prolonged cold storage remains a risk factor for liver graft outcome, especially when steatosis is present. Steatotic livers exhibit exacerbated endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress that occurs in response to cold IRI. In addition, a defective liver autophagy correlates well with liver damage. Here, we evaluated the combined effect of melatonin and trimetazidine as additives to IGL-1 solution in the modulation of ER stress and autophagy in steatotic liver grafts through activation of AMPK. Steatotic livers were preserved for 24 hr (4°C) in UW or IGL-1 solutions with or without MEL + TMZ and subjected to 2-hr reperfusion (37°C). We assessed hepatic injury (ALT and AST) and function (bile production). We evaluated ER stress (GRP78, PERK, and CHOP) and autophagy (beclin-1, ATG7, LC3B, and P62). Steatotic livers preserved in IGL-1 + MEL + TMZ showed lower injury and better function as compared to those preserved in IGL-1 alone. IGL-1 + MEL + TMZ induced a significant decrease in GRP78, pPERK, and CHOP activation after reperfusion. This was consistent with a major activation of autophagic parameters (beclin-1, ATG7, and LC3B) and AMPK phosphorylation. The inhibition of AMPK induced an increase in ER stress and a significant reduction in autophagy. These data confirm the close relationship between AMPK activation and ER stress and autophagy after cold IRI. The addition of melatonin and TMZ to IGL-1 solution improved steatotic liver graft preservation through AMPK activation, which reduces ER stress and increases autophagy. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

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