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Puig J.,Hospital Universitari Dr Josep Trueta | Puig J.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | Pedraza S.,Hospital Universitari Dr Josep Trueta | Blasco G.,Hospital Universitari Dr Josep Trueta | And 8 more authors.
American Journal of Neuroradiology | Year: 2011

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Early prediction of motor outcome is of interest in stroke management. We aimed to determine whether lesion location at DTT is predictive of motor outcome after acute stroke and whether this information improves the predictive accuracy of the clinical scores. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We evaluated 60 consecutive patients within 12 hours of middle cerebral artery stroke onset. We used DTT to evaluate CST involvement in the motor cortex and premotor cortex, centrum semiovale, corona radiata, and PLIC and in combinations of these regions at admission, at day 3, and at day 30. Severity of limb weakness was assessed by using the motor subindex scores of the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (5a, 5b, 6a, 6b). We calculated volumes of infarct and fractional anisotropy values in the CST of the pons. RESULTS: Acute damage to the PLIC was the best predictor associated with poor motor outcome, axonal damage, and clinical severity at admission (P < .001). There was no significant correlation between acute infarct volume and motor outcome at day 90 (P = .176, r = 0.485). The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of acute CST involvement at the level of the PLIC for motor outcome at day 90 were 73.7%, 100%, 100%, and 89.1%, respectively. In the acute stage, DTT predicted motor outcome at day 90 better than the clinical scores (R2 = 75.50, F = 80.09, P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: In the acute setting, DTT is promising for stroke mapping to predict motor outcome. Acute CST damage at the level of the PLIC is a significant predictor of unfavorable motor outcome. Copyright © 2011 by the American Society of Neuroradiology. Source


Puig J.,Hospital Universitari Dr Josep Trueta | Puig J.,University of Barcelona | Pedraza S.,Hospital Universitari Dr Josep Trueta | Demchuk A.,University of Calgary | And 9 more authors.
American Journal of Neuroradiology | Year: 2012

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Little is known about the factors that determine recanalization after intravenous thrombolysis. We assessed the value of thrombus Hounsfield unit quantification as a predictive marker of stroke subtype and MCA recanalization after intravenous rtPA treatment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: NCCT scans and CTA were performed on patients with MCA acute stroke within 4.5 hours of symptom onset. Demographics, stroke severity, vessel hyperattenuation, occlusion site, thrombus length, and time to thrombolysis were recorded. Stroke origin was categorized as LAA, cardioembolic, or indeterminate according to TOAST criteria. Two blinded neuroradiologists calculated the Hounsfield unit values for the thrombus and contralateral MCA segment. We used ROC curves to determine the rHU cutoff point to discriminate patients with successful recanalization from those without. We assessed the accuracy (sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values) of rHU in the prediction of recanalization. RESULTS: Of 87 consecutive patients, 45 received intravenous rtPA and only 15 (33.3%) patients had acute recanalization. rHU values and stroke mechanism were the highest predictive factors of recanalization. The Matthews correlation coefficient was highest for rHU (0.901). The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values for lack of recanalization after intravenous rtPA for rHU ≤ 1.382 were 100%, 86.67%, 93.75%, and 100%, respectively. LAA thrombi had lower rHU than cardioembolic and indeterminate stroke thrombi (P = .004). CONCLUSIONS: The Hounsfield unit thrombus measurement ratio can predict recanalization with intravenous rtPA and may have clinical utility for endovascular treatment decision making. Source


Mahfoudh-Boussaid A.,University of Monastir | Tka K.H.A.,University of Monastir | Zaouali M.A.,University of Monastir | Rosello-Catafau J.,Institute Dinvestigacions Biomediques Of Barcelona Consejo Superior Of Investigaciones Cientificas | Ben Abdennebi H.,University of Monastir
Renal Failure | Year: 2014

Renal ischemia reperfusion (I/R) injury, which occurs during renal surgery or transplantation, is the major cause of acute renal failure. Trimetazidine (TMZ), an anti-ischemic drug, protects kidney against the deleterious effects of I/R. However its protective mechanism remains unclear. The aim of this study is to examine the relevance of Akt, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), and hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) on TMZ induced protection of kidneys against I/R injury. Wistar rats were subjected to 60 min of warm renal ischemia followed by 120 min of reperfusion, or to intraperitoneal injection of TMZ (3 mg/kg) 30 min before ischemia. In sham operated group renal pedicles were only dissected. Compared to I/R, TMZ treatment decreased lactate dehydrogenase (845 ± 13 vs. 1028 ± 30 U/L). In addition, creatinine clearance and sodium reabsorption rates reached 105 ± 12 versus 31 ± 11 μL/min/g kidney weight and 95 ± 1 versus 68 ± 5%, respectively. Besides, we noted a decrease in malondialdehyde concentration (0.33 ± 0.01 vs. 0.59 ± 0.03 nmol/mg of protein) and an increase in glutathione concentration (2.6 ± 0.2 vs. 0.93 ± 0.16 μg GSH/mg of protein), glutathione peroxidase (95 ± 4 vs. 61 ± 3 μg GSH/min/mg of protein), and superoxide dismutase (25 ± 3 vs. 11 ± 2 U/mg of protein) and catalase (91 ± 12 vs. 38 ± 9 μmol/min/mg of protein) activities. Parallely, we noted a significant increase in p-Akt, eNOS, nitrite and nitrate (18 ± 2 vs. 8 ± 0.1 pomL/mg of protein), HIF-1α (333 ± 48 vs. 177 ± 14 μg/mg of protein) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) levels regarding I/R. TMZ treatment improves renal tolerance to warm I/R. Such protection implicates an activation of Akt/eNOS signaling pathway, HIF-1α stabilization and HO-1 activation. © 2014 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc. All rights reserved. Source


Zaouali M.A.,Institute Dinvestigacions Biomediques Of Barcelona Consejo Superior Of Investigaciones Cientificas | Bardag-Gorce F.,University of California at Los Angeles | Carbonell T.,University of Barcelona | Oliva J.,University of California at Los Angeles | And 6 more authors.
Experimental and Molecular Pathology | Year: 2013

Background: The dramatic shortage of organs leads to consider the steatotic livers for transplantation although their poor tolerance against ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI). Ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) inhibition during hypothermia prolongs myocardial graft preservation. The role of UPS in the liver IRI is not fully understood. Bortezomib (BRZ) treatment at non-toxic doses of rats fed alcohol chronically has shown protective effects by increasing liver antioxidant enzymes. We evaluated and compared both proteasome inhibitors BRZ and MG132 in addition to University of Wisconsin preservation solution (UW) at low and non-toxic dose for fatty liver graft protection against cold IRI. Experimental: Steatotic and non-steatotic livers have been stored in UW enriched with BRZ (100. nM) or MG132 (25 μM), for 24. h at 4 °C and then subjected to 2-h normothermic reperfusion (37 °C). Liver injury (AST/ALT), hepatic function (bile output; vascular resistance), mitochondrial damage (GLDH), oxidative stress (MDA), nitric oxide (NO) (e-NOS activity; nitrates/nitrites), proteasome chymotrypsin-like activity (ChT), and UPS (19S and 20S5 beta) protein levels have been measured. Results: ChT was inhibited when BRZ and MG132 were added to UW. Both inhibitors prevented liver injury (AST/ALT), when compared to UW alone. BRZ increased bile production more efficiently than MG132. Only BRZ decreased vascular resistance in fatty livers, which correlated with an increase in NO generation (through e-NOS activation) and AMPK phosphorylation. GLDH and MDA were also prevented by BRZ. In addition, BRZ inhibited adiponectin, IL-1, and TNF alpha, only in steatotic livers. Conclusion: MG132 and BRZ, administrated at low and non toxic doses, are very efficient to protect fatty liver grafts against cold IRI. The benefits of BRZ are more effective than those of MG132. This evidenced for the first time the potential use of UPS inhibitors for the preservation of marginal liver grafts and for future applications in the prevention of IRI. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. Source


Padrissa-Altes S.,Institute Dinvestigacions Biomediques Of Barcelona Consejo Superior Of Investigaciones Cientificas | Zaouali M.A.,Institute Dinvestigacions Biomediques Of Barcelona Consejo Superior Of Investigaciones Cientificas | Bartrons R.,University of Barcelona | Rosello-Catafau J.,Institute Dinvestigacions Biomediques Of Barcelona Consejo Superior Of Investigaciones Cientificas | Rosello-Catafau J.,Institute dInvestigacions Biomediques August Pi i Sunyer
Clinical Science | Year: 2012

In the present Hypothesis article, we summarize and present data from the literature that support our hypothesis on the potential mechanisms by which UPS (ubiquitin-proteasome system) inhibitors reduce I/R (ischaemia/reperfusion) injury in the liver. I/R is the main cause of primary liver failure and, consequently, minimizing the detrimental effects of this process could increase the number of suitable transplantation grafts and also enhance the survival rate of patients after liver transplantation. A potential strategy to reduce I/R injury is the use of UPS inhibitors either as additives to preservation solutions or as drugs administered to patients. However, there is still controversy over whether the use of UPS inhibitors is beneficial or deleterious with regard to liver injury. From our experience and the few studies that have investigated the role of UPS in hepatic I/R, we believe that the use of UPS inhibitors is a potential strategy to reduce I/R injury in liver transplantation and graft preservation. We hypothesize that one of the main mechanisms of action of UPS inhibitors may be the up-regulation of AMPK (AMP-activated protein kinase) activity and the consequent down-regulation of mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin), which may finally influence autophagy and preserve the energy state of the cell. © 2012 The Author(s). Source

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