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Gea-Sorli S.,Institute Dinvestigacions Biomediques Of Barcelona | Gea-Sorli S.,Research Center Biomedica En Red Of Enfermedades Hepaticas gestivas | Guillamat R.,Institute Dinvestigacions Biomediques Of Barcelona | Guillamat R.,Research Center Biomedica En Red Of Enfermedades Respiratorias Ciberes | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Pathology | Year: 2011

Pulmonary macrophages exist in two different anatomical compartments in the lower respiratory tract: alveolar macrophages in the alveoli and interstitial macrophages in the interstitium. Depending on the micro-environmental stimulation, macrophages follow different activation pathways. According to their inflammatory response pattern, activated macrophages have been characterized as pro-inflammatory (M1), wound-healing (M2a) and regulatory (M2b). Since acute pancreatitis occurs in parallel with acute lung injury, the profile of the different macrophage subpopulations could be relevant in the progression of the disease. The activation of lung alveolar and interstitial macrophages was assessed in an experimental model of severe acute pancreatitis induced in rats by intraductal infusion of 3.5% sodium taurocholate. Alveolar and interstitial macrophages were obtained and the expression of markers of different activations was evaluated. Activation of nuclear factors PPARIγ and NF-IκB, which are involved in the acquisition of different phenoytpes, was also measured. Alveolar macrophages acquired an early M1 phenotype characterized by the expression of inflammatory cytokines and NF-IκB activation. In contrast, interstitial macrophages followed the inhibitory M2b pathway. In these macrophages, PPARIγ became activated and the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 was expressed. These results suggest that alveolar and interstitial macrophages play different roles in acute lung injury associated with acute pancreatitis. Alveolar macrophages promote an early inflammatory response, whereas interstitial macrophages help resolve inflammation. Copyright © 2010 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


Gutierrez P.,Institute Dinvestigacions Biomediques Of Barcelona | Closa D.,Institute Dinvestigacions Biomediques Of Barcelona | Piner R.,Hospital Clinic of Barcelona | Bulbena O.,Institute Dinvestigacions Biomediques Of Barcelona | And 2 more authors.
European Respiratory Journal | Year: 2010

In large series of nonresponding community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) patients, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) was observed to be a protective factor for nonresponse to initial antibiotics. This intriguing fact may be linked to changes in the phenotype of inflammatory cells and, in particular, to the induction of classical-M1 or alternative-M2 activation of macrophages, which result in different inflammatory profiles. We evaluated the effect of sputum obtained from patients with acute exacerbation of COPD (AECOPD), CAP and COPD+CAP on the phenotypic changes in macrophages. Human THP1 cells differentiated to macrophages were incubated with sputum from patients with AECOPD, CAP or COPD+CAP, and expression of tumour necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, mannose receptor and arginase was measured to evaluate the phenotype acquired by macrophages. We found that sputum from CAP patients induced the M1 phenotype and that from AECOPD patients induced an M2-like phenotype. Sputum from CAP+COPD patients did not present a clear M1 or M2 phenotype. These results indicate that the microenvironment in the lung modulates the activation of macrophages, resulting in different phenotypes in AECOPD, CAP and COPD+CAP patients. This different type of activation induces different inflammatory responses and may be involved in the different outcome observed when COPD and CAP present simultaneously. Copyright©ERS 2010.


Benito B.,University of Barcelona | Benito B.,Institute dInvestigacions Biomediques August Pi Sunyer | Benito B.,Montreal Heart Institute | Gay-Jordi G.,Institute dInvestigacions Biomediques August Pi Sunyer | And 12 more authors.
Circulation | Year: 2011

Background-: Recent clinical studies suggest that endurance sports may promote cardiac arrhythmias. The aim of this study was to use an animal model to evaluate whether sustained intensive exercise training induces potentially adverse myocardial remodeling and thus creates a potential substrate for arrhythmias. Methods and results-: Male Wistar rats were conditioned to run vigorously for 4, 8, and 16 weeks; time-matched sedentary rats served as controls. Serial echocardiograms and in vivo electrophysiological studies at 16 weeks were obtained in both groups. After euthanasia, ventricular collagen deposition was quantified by histological and biochemical studies, and messenger RNA and protein expression of transforming growth factor-21, fibronectin-1, matrix metalloproteinase-2, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1, procollagen-I, and procollagen-III was evaluated in all 4 cardiac chambers. At 16 weeks, exercise rats developed eccentric hypertrophy and diastolic dysfunction, together with atrial dilation. In addition, collagen deposition in the right ventricle and messenger RNA and protein expression of fibrosis markers in both atria and right ventricle were significantly greater in exercise than in sedentary rats at 16 weeks. Ventricular tachycardia could be induced in 5 of 12 exercise rats (42%) and only 1 of 16 sedentary rats (6%; P≤0.05). The fibrotic changes caused by 16 weeks of intensive exercise were reversed after an 8-week exercise cessation. Conclusions-: In this animal model, we documented cardiac fibrosis after long-term intensive exercise training, together with changes in ventricular function and increased arrhythmia inducibility. If our findings are confirmed in humans, the results would support the notion that long-term vigorous endurance exercise training may in some cases promote adverse remodeling and produce a substrate for cardiac arrhythmias. Copyright © 2011 American Heart Association. All rights reserved.


Xaubet A.,University of Barcelona | Serrano-Mollar A.,Institute Dinvestigacions Biomediques Of Barcelona | Ancochea J.,Hospital Universitario Of La Princesa
Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy | Year: 2014

Introduction: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic, progressive and lethal fibrosing interstitial pneumonia. The median survival from the onset of the symptoms is 2.8-4.2 years and the 5-year survival rate is 20%. Its poor prognosis, combined with the scarcity of treatment options, provides a strong rationale for the development of novel therapeutic strategies. During the past decade there has been a huge rise in clinical trials with anti-fibrotic drugs, although only pirfenidone (Esbriet) has shown a beneficial effect. Areas covered: This article reviews the medical literature on the effectiveness and safety of pirfenidone in IPF, by means of a PubMed search from 1995 to present, completed with some data on file from the manufacturer. Expert opinion: Pirfenidone is the only anti-fibrotic drug approved for the treatment of IPF. Pirfenidone provides a meaningful clinical effect on reductions in the decrease in forced vital capacity (FVC), six-minute walk test (6MWT) distance and mortality, and it improves the progression-free survival in IPF patients with mild-to-moderate disease. Pirfenidone is well tolerated, with the most common side-effects being gastrointestinal discomfort and photosensitivity. Pirfenidone has a favorable benefit-risk profile and represents a suitable treatment option for patients with mild-to-moderate IPF. © Informa UK, Ltd.


Chamorro A.,University of Barcelona | Chamorro A.,Institute dInvestigacions Biomediques Agusti Pi i Sunyer | Dirnagl U.,Charité - Medical University of Berlin | Dirnagl U.,German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases | And 4 more authors.
The Lancet Neurology | Year: 2016

Treatments for acute ischaemic stroke continue to evolve after the superior value of endovascular thrombectomy was confirmed over systemic thrombolysis. Unfortunately, numerous neuroprotective drugs have failed to show benefit in the treatment of acute ischaemic stroke, making the search for new treatments imperative. Increased awareness of the relevance of rigorous preclinical testing, and appropriate selection of study participants, might overcome the barriers to progress in stroke research. Relevant areas of interest include the search for safe and effective treatment strategies that combine neuroprotection reperfusion, better use of advanced brain imaging for patient selection, and wider implementation of prehospital conducted clinical trials. Randomised controlled trials of combination treatments completed within the past 5 years have included growth factors, hypothermia, minocycline, natalizumab, fingolimod, and uric acid; the latter two drugs with alteplase produced encouraging results. Blocking of excitotoxicity is also being reassessed in clinical trials with new approaches, such as the postsynaptic density-95 inhibitor NA-1, or peritoneal dialysis to remove excess glutamate. The findings of these randomised trials are anticipated to improve treatment options and clinical outcomes in of patients with acute stroke. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.


Alvarez E.,University of Barcelona | Perez V.,University of Barcelona | Dragheim M.,Lundbeck | Loft H.,Lundbeck | And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology | Year: 2012

The efficacy, safety, and tolerability of Lu AA21004 vs. placebo using venlafaxine XR as active reference in patients with DSM-IV-TR major depressive disorder (MDD) were evaluated. Lu AA21004 is a novel antidepressant that is a 5-HT3 and 5-HT7 receptor antagonist, 5-HT1A receptor agonist, 5-HT1B receptor partial agonist and inhibitor of the 5-HT transporter in recombinant cell lines. In this 6-wk, multi-site study, 429 patients were randomly assigned (1:1:1:1) to 5 or 10 mg Lu AA21004, placebo or 225 mg venlafaxine XR. All patients had a baseline Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) total score ≥30. The primary efficacy analysis was based on the MADRS total score adjusting for multiplicity using a hierarchical testing procedure starting with the highest dose vs. placebo. Lu AA21004 was statistically significantly superior to placebo (n=105) in mean change from baseline in MADRS total score at week 6 (p<0.0001, last observation carried forward), with a mean treatment difference vs. placebo of 5.9 (5 mg, n=108), and 5.7 (10 mg, n=100) points. Venlafaxine XR (n=112) was also significantly superior to placebo at week 6 (p<0.0001). In total, 30 patients withdrew due to adverse events (AEs)-placebo: four (4%); 5 mg Lu AA21004: three (3%); 10 mg Lu AA21004: seven (7%); and venlafaxine: 16 (14%). The most common AEs were nausea, headache, hyperhidrosis, and dry mouth. No clinically relevant changes over time were seen in the clinical laboratory results, vital signs, weight, or ECG parameters. In this study, treatment with 5 mg and 10 mg Lu AA21004 for 6 wk was efficacious and well tolerated in patients with MDD. © 2011 CINP and Cambridge University Press.


Gresa-Arribas N.,Institute Dinvestigacions Biomediques Of Barcelona | Serratosa J.,Institute Dinvestigacions Biomediques Of Barcelona | Saura J.,University of Barcelona | Sola C.,Institute Dinvestigacions Biomediques Of Barcelona
Journal of Neurochemistry | Year: 2010

The control of neuroinflammation is a potential target to be considered in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. It is therefore important to find anti-inflammatory drugs and study new targets that inhibit neuroinflammation. We designed an experimental model of neuroinflammation in vitro to study the anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects of the flavonoid chrysin and the involvement of nuclear factor-κB p65 and CCAAT/enhancer binding proteins (C/EBPs) β and δ transcription factors in its mechanism of action. We used primary cultures of mouse embryonic cortical neurons and cultures of BV2 (murine microglial cell line) or mouse primary microglia. We induced neuronal death in neuronal-BV2/microglial co-cultures using lipopolysaccharide of Escherichia coli and interferon-γ. Chrysin pre-treatment inhibited nitric oxide and tumor necrosis factor-a production, as well as inducible nitric oxide synthase expression in lipopolysaccharide E. coli and interferon-γ-treated microglial cells, but did not affect cyclooxygenase-2 expression. Chrysin pretreatment also protected neurons against the neurotoxicity induced by reactive microglial cells. These effects were associated to a decrease in C/EBPδ protein level, mRNA expression, and DNA-binding activity, with no effect on C/EBPb and p65 nuclear protein levels or DNA-binding activity, pointing out C/EBPδ as a possible mediator of chrysin effects. Consequently, C/EBPδ is a possible target to act against neuroinflammation in neurodegenerative processes. © 2010 International Society for Neurochemistry.


Sunol C.,Institute Dinvestigacions Biomediques Of Barcelona
Methods in Molecular Biology | Year: 2011

Glutamate is the mayor excitatory neurotransmitter in vertebrate nervous system. It has a crucial role in most brain functions under physiological conditions through the activation of both ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptors. In addition, extracellular glutamate concentration is tightly regulated through different excitatory amino acid transporters (EAAT). Glutamate neurotransmission is also involved in the neurotoxic effects of many environmental chemicals and drugs. Furthermore, homeostatic changes in glutamate neurotransmission appear in response to prolonged block/enhancement of electrical activity. Here, we describe different approaches to evaluate alterations in glutamate neurotransmission regarding glutamate receptors and glutamate transporters by using primary cultures of neurons and astrocytes. The methods are based on the increased fluorescence of calcium-sensitive probes in response to glutamate agonists, on radioligand binding to glutamate receptors and transport sites, and on inmunocytochemistry visualization of glutamate receptors. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.


Valente T.,University of Barcelona | Mancera P.,Institute Dinvestigacions Biomediques Of Barcelona | Tusell J.M.,Institute Dinvestigacions Biomediques Of Barcelona | Serratosa J.,Institute Dinvestigacions Biomediques Of Barcelona | Saura J.,University of Barcelona
Neurobiology of Aging | Year: 2012

Neuroinflammation is thought to play a pathogenic role in many neurodegenerative disorders including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). In this study we demonstrate that the expression of nitric oxide (NO) synthase-2 (NOS2), and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) with interferon-γ is higher in microglial-enriched cultures from G93A-SOD1 mice, an ALS animal model, than from wild type mice. The levels of CCAAT/enhancer binding protein β (C/EBPβ), a transcription factor that regulates proinflammatory gene expression, are also upregulated in activated G93A-SOD1 microglial cells. In vivo, systemic lipopolysaccharide also induces an exacerbated neuroinflammatory response in G93A-SOD1 mice versus wild type mice, with increased expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), CD11b, nitric oxide synthase-2, cyclooxygenase-2, proinflammatory cytokines, and C/EBPβ. Finally, we report that C/EBPβ is expressed by microglia in the spinal cord of ALS patients. This is the first demonstration to our knowledge of microglial C/EBPβ expression in human disease. Altogether these findings indicate that G93A-SOD1 expression results in an exacerbated pattern of neuroinflammation and suggest that C/EBPβ is a candidate to regulate the expression of potentially neurotoxic genes in microglial cells in ALS. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.


Alvarez E.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | Perez V.,Ministry of Science and Innovation | Perez V.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | Artigas F.,Ministry of Science and Innovation | Artigas F.,Institute Dinvestigacions Biomediques Of Barcelona
Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment | Year: 2014

Vortioxetine is a new multimodal action antidepressant with two types of action: serotonin transporter (SERT) blockade and a strong affinity for several serotoninergic receptors. It is an antagonist of the 5-HT3 and 5-HT7 receptors, a partial agonist of 5-HT1B, and an agonist of 5-HT1A. Its combined action on SERT and four subtypes of serotoninergic receptors increases the extracellular concentration of serotonin, dopamine, and noradrenaline. Twelve clinical trials have been carried out, nine of which had positive results versus placebo. When active comparators were included in the study design, no significant differences were found except in one study in which the efficacy of vortioxetine was superior to the comparator (agomelatine) in depression resistant to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI)/serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRI) treatment. Tolerability studies indicate that the drug does not cause any important problems on blood tests, vital signs, or on electrocardiography. The lack of weight gain and induction of metabolic syndrome and the lack of significant changes in the QTc are especially important. The incidence rate of sexual dysfunction is low and similar to placebo in various trials. Similarly, cognitive function remains intact with vortioxetine. © 2014 Alvarez et al.

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