IDIBAPS Institute dInvestigacions Biomediques August Pi Sunyer

Spain

IDIBAPS Institute dInvestigacions Biomediques August Pi Sunyer

Spain
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Diaz R.,CIBER ISCIII | Goti J.,CIBER ISCIII | Garcia M.,Catalan Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology | Gual A.,Hospital Clinic Universitari of Barcelona | And 6 more authors.
European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry | Year: 2011

This study aimed to describe patterns of substance use in adolescents initiating mental health treatment and analyse factors associated with a high-risk pattern of substance use differentially by gender. Two hundred and thirty-seven 12- to 17-year-old new patients in an urban public mental health service were prospectively recruited and evaluated using semi-structured interviews and standardized questionnaires to obtain socio-demographic, psychopathological, family, school and substance use data. The most prevalent primary diagnoses among males were attention deficit disorder and conduct disorder, while among females they were eating disorders, affective and conduct disorders. Substance use disorder was diagnosed as follows: cannabis in 10.1% of the sample, alcohol in 3.4% and other drugs in 0.4%. A pattern of substance use with high risk of developing problems (at least regular use of alcohol or occasional use of cannabis or other illegal drugs) was found in 48.9% of the sample. After adjusting for age in the multivariate logistic regression, this pattern of risky use of drugs was found to be associated with Youth Self-Report scales of thought problems, delinquent and aggressive behaviour, in both genders. Altered family structure, having had to repeat a school grade and Youth Self-Report attention problems were only significantly associated with risky drug consumption in females. The high prevalence of risky and problematic substance use in adolescents entering mental health treatment warrants early systematic screening and specific preventive and therapeutic interventions, addressing mental health psychoeducation and motivation to avoid drugs, as well as differential associated risk factors for males and females. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.


Diaz R.,Hospital Clinic Universitari of Barcelona | Goti J.,Hospital Clinic Universitari of Barcelona | Garcia M.,Catalan Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology | Gual A.,Hospital Clinic Universitari of Barcelona | And 6 more authors.
European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry | Year: 2011

This study aimed to describe patterns of substance use in adolescents initiating mental health treatment and analyse factors associated with a high-risk pattern of substance use differentially by gender. Two hundred and thirty-seven 12- to 17-year-old new patients in an urban public mental health service were prospectively recruited and evaluated using semi-structured interviews and standardized questionnaires to obtain socio-demographic, psychopathological, family, school and substance use data. The most prevalent primary diagnoses among males were attention deficit disorder and conduct disorder, while among females they were eating disorders, affective and conduct disorders. Substance use disorder was diagnosed as follows: cannabis in 10.1% of the sample, alcohol in 3.4% and other drugs in 0.4%. A pattern of substance use with high risk of developing problems (at least regular use of alcohol or occasional use of cannabis or other illegal drugs) was found in 48.9% of the sample. After adjusting for age in the multivariate logistic regression, this pattern of risky use of drugs was found to be associated with Youth Self-Report scales of thought problems, delinquent and aggressive behaviour, in both genders. Altered family structure, having had to repeat a school grade and Youth Self-Report attention problems were only significantly associated with risky drug consumption in females. The high prevalence of risky and problematic substance use in adolescents entering mental health treatment warrants early systematic screening and specific preventive and therapeutic interventions, addressing mental health psychoeducation and motivation to avoid drugs, as well as differential associated risk factors for males and females. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.


Castro-Fornieles J.,Hospital Clinic Universitari | Castro-Fornieles J.,IDIBAPS Institute dInvestigacions Biomediques August Pi Sunyer | Castro-Fornieles J.,University of Barcelona | Diaz R.,Hospital Clinic Universitari | And 6 more authors.
European Addiction Research | Year: 2010

Objective: Very few studies have assessed substance use in clinical samples of adolescents with eating disorders (ED). This paper reports the prevalence of regular or risky substance use (RRSU) and substance use disorder (SUD) in adolescents with ED. Methods: The Teen-Addiction Severity Index (T-ASI), the Youth Self-Report (YSR) scale and substance use questionnaires were administered to 95 adolescent patients aged 12-17 years who fulfilled the DSM-IV-TR diagnostic criteria for anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and ED not otherwise specified. All patients were consecutively attended at an Eating Disorders Unit. Results: 14.7% presented SUD related to tobacco, 3.2% to cannabis, 1.1% to alcohol, and 1.1% to other substances. Patients with RRSU-SUD of any substance except tobacco were 34.7%. Patients with RRSU-SUD failed more subjects, repeated more school years and had higher scores on T-ASI scales of problems at school, family function and social relationships, and on YSR scales of delinquent behavior and externalizing problems. Conclusions: Substance use problems in ED adolescents are frequent and formal screening of them as well as a specific therapeutic approach are necessary. Copyright © 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.


Magallon-Neri E.M.,Institute of Neurosciences Hospital Clinic Universitari of Barcelona | Magallon-Neri E.M.,University of Barcelona | Forns M.,University of Barcelona | Canalda G.,Institute of Neurosciences Hospital Clinic Universitari of Barcelona | And 8 more authors.
Comprehensive Psychiatry | Year: 2013

The aim of this study was to analyze the usefulness of the International Personality Disorder Examination Screening Questionnaire (IPDE-SQ) for identifying DSM-IV and ICD-10 Borderline and Impulsive personality disorders (PD) in Spanish adolescents. Method: The DSM-IV and ICD-10 IPDE-SQ screeners were used and compared with the diagnoses obtained with the IPDE semistructured interview in a sample of 125 adolescents treated in a psychiatric department. Results: For primary screening, the cutoff point with the best combination of sensitivity and specificity for ICD-10 impulsive and borderline PDs was obtained with three positive items, whereas for DSM-IV borderline the best PD cut-off was five positive items. For secondary screening, the best option would be one item above the cut-off points proposed for primary screening. Conclusion: The 3-item cut-off point in the IPDE-SQ produces a high proportion of false positives on impulsive and borderline PDs in clinical adolescents. We propose several cut-off points, depending on whether the study is designed to perform primary or secondary screening. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.


Vall G.,GSS Hospital Santa Maria IRB | Vall G.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | Gutierrez F.,Hospital Clinic Of Barcelona | Gutierrez F.,IDIBAPS Institute dInvestigacions Biomediques August Pi Sunyer | And 5 more authors.
Evolution and Human Behavior | Year: 2016

Personality variation is increasingly thought to have an adaptive function. This is less clear for personality disorders (PDs)-extreme variants of personality that cause harm in most aspects of life. However, the possibility that PDs may be maintained in the population because of their advantages for fitness has been not convincingly tested. In a sample of 959 outpatients, we examined whether, and how, sexual selection acts on the seven main dimensions of personality pathology, taking into account mating success, reproductive success, and the mediating role of status. We find that, to varying extents, all personality dimensions are under sexual selection. Far from being predominantly purifying, selective forces push traits in diverging, often pathological, directions. These pressures differ moderately between the sexes. Sexual selection largely acts in males through the acquisition of wealth, and through the duration (rather than the number) of mates. This gives a reproductive advantage to males high in persistence-compulsivity. Conversely, because of the decoupling between the number of mates and offspring, the promiscuous strategy of psychopaths is not so successful. Negative emotionality, the most clinically detrimental trait, is slightly deleterious in males but is positively selected in females, which can help to preserve variation. The general picture is that at least some PDs form part of high-risk alternative strategies, although a sole evolutionary mechanism is unlikely to apply to all traits. An evolutionary perspective on PDs can provide a better understanding of their nature and causes than we have achieved to date by considering them as illnesses. © 2016 Elsevier Inc.


Gutierrez F.,Hospital Clinic Of Barcelona | Gutierrez F.,IDIBAPS Institute dInvestigacions Biomediques August Pi Sunyer | Vall G.,GSS Hospital Santa Maria IRB | Vall G.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | And 3 more authors.
Comprehensive Psychiatry | Year: 2014

Despite general support for dimensional models of personality disorder, it is currently unclear which, and how many, dimensions a taxonomy of this kind should include. In an attempt to obtain an empirically-based, comprehensive, and usable structure of personality, three instruments - The Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised (TCI-R), the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire-4 + (PDQ-4 +), and the Dimensional Assessment of Personality Pathology-Basic Questionnaire (DAPP-BQ) - were administered to 960 outpatients and their scales factor-analyzed following a bass ackwards approach. The resulting hierarchical structure was interpretable and replicable across gender and methods up to seven factors. This structure highlights coincidences among current dimensional models and clarifies their apparent divergences, and thus helps to delineate the unified taxonomy of normal and abnormal personality that the field requires. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.


Magallon-Neri E.,Hospital Clinic Universitari of Barcelona | Magallon-Neri E.,University of Barcelona | De la Fuente J.E.,Hospital Clinic Universitari of Barcelona | Canalda G.,Hospital Clinic Universitari of Barcelona | And 7 more authors.
Psychiatry Research | Year: 2014

The study aimed to compare methods of identification of Personality Disorders (PD) in adolescent patients with psychiatric disorders. A sample of 120 Spanish adolescents with clinical disorders was assessed using the International Personality Disorder Examination (IPDE) interview, its Screening Questionnaires (IPDE-SQ) comprising the ICD-10 and DSM-IV modules, and also the Temperament Character Inventory (TCI) to identify risk of PD. The IPDE-SQ identified a risk of PD around 92-97% of the sample; 61.7% when adjusting the stricter cut-off points. The TCI showed a PD risk of 20%, whereas the prevalence of PD identified by the IPDE clinical interview was around 36-38%. The differences between the IPDE, IPDE-SQ and TCI were significant, and a low agreement among instruments was obtained. Large discrepancy between self-report instruments in identifying PD with regard to the clinical interview raises several questions concerning the use of these instruments in clinical settings on adolescents with psychiatric disorders. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.


Magallon-Neri E.,Institute of Neurosciences Hospital Clinic Universitari of Barcelona | Magallon-Neri E.,University of Barcelona | Magallon-Neri E.,Institute of Research in Brain | Diaz R.,Institute of Neurosciences Hospital Clinic Universitari of Barcelona | And 6 more authors.
PeerJ | Year: 2015

Substance use is a risk behavior that tends to increase during adolescence, a time when part of the personality is still in development. Traditionally, personality psychopathology has been measured in terms of categories, although dimensional models have demonstrated better consistency. This study aimed to analyze differences in personality profiles between adolescents with substance use disorders (SUD n = 74) and matched community controls (MCC n = 74) using the Personality Psychopathology Five (PSY-5) dimensional model. Additionally, we compared age at first drug use, level of drug use and internalizing and externalizing symptoms between the groups. In this study, the PSY-5 model has proved to be useful for differentiating specific personality disturbances in adolescents with SUD and community adolescents. The Disconstraint scale was particularly useful for discriminating adolescents with substance use problems and the Delinquent Attitudes facet offered the best differentiation. © 2015 Magallón-Neri et al.


Magallon-Neri E.,Institute of Neurosciences Hospital Clinic Universitari of Barcelona | Magallon-Neri E.,University of Barcelona | Diaz R.,Institute of Neurosciences Hospital Clinic Universitari of Barcelona | Forns M.,University of Barcelona | And 5 more authors.
Adicciones | Year: 2012

The main aim of this study was to replicate and extend previous results on subtypes of adolescents with substance use disorders (SUD), according to their Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory for adolescents (MMPI-A) profiles. Sixty patients with SUD and psychiatric comorbidity (41.7% male, mean age = 15.9 years old) completed the MMPI-A, the Teen Addiction Severity Index (T-ASI), the Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL), and were interviewed in order to determine DSMIV diagnoses and level of substance use. Mean MMPI-A personality profile showed moderate peaks in Psychopathic Deviate, Depression and Hysteria scales. Hierarchical cluster analysis revealed four profiles (acting-out, 35% of the sample; disorganized-conflictive, 15%; normative-impulsive, 15%; and deceptive-concealed, 35%). External correlates were found between cluster 1, CBCL externalizing symptoms at a clinical level and conduct disorders, and between cluster 2 and mixed CBCL internalized/externalized symptoms at a clinical level. Discriminant analysis showed that Depression, Psychopathic Deviate and Psychasthenia MMPI-A scales correctly classified 90% of the patients into the clusters obtained.

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