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Oliva R.,Institute dinvestigacions Biomediques August Pi i Sunyer DIBAPS | Ballesca J.L.,Hospital Universitari Clinic Of Barcelona
Balkan Journal of Medical Genetics

The study of the sperm proteins is crucial for understanding its normal function and alterations in infertile patients. The sperm is a highly specialized cell with a very large flagella, with little cytoplasm and a highly condensed nucleus. The most abundant proteins in the nucleus of mammalian sperm are the protamines. The main functions of the protamines are the condensation of the DNA, possibly contributing to the generation of a more hydrodynamic sperm head and to the protection of the genetic message. However, in addition to protamines, about 5.0-15.0% of the paternal genome is also complexed with histones and histone variants. It has also demonstrated a differential distribution of genes in regions associated with histone and protamine-associated regions, suggesting a potential epigenetic relevance in embryonic development. More recently, detailed lists of proteins have been described corresponding to the different compartments of the sperm cell thanks to the application of recent proteomic techniques based on mass spectrometry (MS). Differential proteomics is also being applied to identify the presence of protein abnormalities found in infertile patients. Source

Santiago A.V.,Research Center Biomedica En Red Of Enfermedades Respiratorias Ciberes | Santiago A.V.,Institute dinvestigacions Biomediques August Pi i Sunyer DIBAPS | Bartra J.,Research Center Biomedica En Red Of Enfermedades Respiratorias Ciberes | Bartra J.,Institute dinvestigacions Biomediques August Pi i Sunyer DIBAPS | And 9 more authors.
Journal of Investigational Allergology and Clinical Immunology

Background: Links between the upper and lower airways have been demonstrated in recent years. However, few studies have evaluated infl ammation using noninvasive methods. Methods: A nasal allergen challenge was performed with pollen outside the pollen season in 30 patients with allergic rhinitis due to pollen but no asthma. Clinical and infl ammatory nasal and bronchial responses to nasal allergen challenge were evaluated using the nasal symptoms score (NSS), visual analog scale (VAS), nasal geometry (volume between 2 and 5 cm [Vol2-5]) by acoustic rhinometry, lung function by spirometry, nasal nitric oxide (nNO), and exhaled nitric oxide (eNO). Values were recorded at baseline, 15 minutes, and 2 and 24 hours after challenge. Nasal lavage and exhaled breath condensate (EBC) samples were collected at 2 and 24 hours to assess 8-isoprostane, cys-leukotrienes, eosinophil cationic protein (ECP), tryptase, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, and interleukin (IL) 5. Results: NSS and VAS increased signifi cantly at 15 minutes and 2 and 24 hours after challenge. Vol2-5 decreased signifi cantly at 15 minutes and 2 hours, while nNO decreased at 15 minutes. All infl ammatory mediators except ECP increased signifi cantly at 2 hours in nasal lavage samples, while ECP, 8-isoprostane, and cys-leukotrienes increased at 24 hours (P<.01). In EBC, 8-isoprostane and cys-leukotrienes increased at 2 and 24 hours (P<.01). No signifi cant changes were found at any time in lung function or eNO. Conclusion: Nasal allergen challenge induces clinical and infl ammatory responses in the nose and bronchi that can be assessed using noninvasive methods such as nasal lavage, EBC, and nNO. © 2012 Esmon Publicidad. Source

Saez-Lopez E.,University of Barcelona | Guiral E.,University of Barcelona | Fernandez-Orth D.,University of Barcelona | Villanueva S.,University of Barcelona | And 23 more authors.

Vaginal Escherichia coli colonization is related to obstetric infections and the consequent development of infections in newborns. Ampicillin resistance among E. coli strains is increasing, which is the main choice for treating empirically many obstetric and neonatal infections. Vaginal E. coli strains are very similar to extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli with regards to the virulence factors and the belonging to phylogroup B2. We studied the antimicrobial resistance and the genetic virulence profile of 82 E. coli isolates from 638 vaginal samples and 63 isolated from endometrial aspirate, placental and amniotic fluid samples from pregnant women with obstetric infections. The prevalence of E. coli in the vaginal samples was 13%, which was significant among women with associated risk factors during pregnancy, especially premature preterm rupture of membranes (p<0.0001). Sixty-five percent of the strains were ampicillin-resistant. The E. coli isolates causing obstetric infections showed higher resistance levels than vaginal isolates, particularly for gentamicin (p = 0.001). The most prevalent virulence factor genes were those related to the iron uptake systems revealing clear targets for interventions. More than 50% of the isolates belonged to the virulent B2 group possessing the highest number of virulence factor genes. The ampicillinresistant isolates had high number of virulence factors primarily related to pathogenicity islands, and the remarkable gentamicin resistance in E. coli isolates from women presenting obstetric infections, the choice of the most appropriate empiric treatment and clinical management of pregnant women and neonates should be carefully made. Taking into account host-susceptibility, the heterogeneity of E. coli due to evolution over time and the geographical area, characterization of E. coli isolates colonizing the vagina and causing obstetric infections in different regions may help to develop interventions and avoid the aetiological link between maternal carriage and obstetric and subsequent puerperal infections. © 2016 Sáez-López et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Source

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