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Baquero-Montoya C.,University of Zaragoza | Gil-Rodriguez M.-C.,University of Zaragoza | Hernandez-Marcos M.,University of Zaragoza | Teresa-Rodrigo M.-E.,University of Zaragoza | And 17 more authors.
European Journal of Medical Genetics

Cornelia de Lange Syndrome (CdLS) is a congenital autosomal dominant (NIPBL, SMC3 and RAD21) or X-linked (SMC1A and HDAC8) disorder characterized by facial dysmorphism, pre and postnatal growth retardation, developmental delay and/or intellectual disability, and multiorgan involvement. Musculoskeletal malformations are usually bilateral and affect mainly the upper limbs; the range goes from brachyclinodactyly to severe reduction defects. Instead lower extremities are usually less and mildly involved. Here, we report on a 3-year-old Senegalese boy with typical craniofacial CdLS features, pre and postnatal growth retardation, atrial septal defect, developmental delay and right ipsilateral limb malformations, consistent with oligodactyly of the 3rd and 4th fingers, tibial agenesis and fibula hypoplasia. Exome sequencing and Sanger sequencing showed a novel missense mutation in NIPBL gene (c.6647A>G; p.(Tyr2216Cys)), which affects a conserved residue located within NIPBL HEAT repeat elements. Pyrosequencing analysis of NIPBL gene, disclosed similar levels of wild-type and mutated alleles in DNA and RNA samples from all tissues analyzed (oral mucosa epithelial cells, peripheral blood leukocytes and fibroblasts). These findings indicated the absence of somatic mosaicism, despite of the segmental asymmetry of the limbs, and confirmed biallelic expression for NIPBL transcripts, respectively. Additionally, conditions like Split-hand/foot malformation with long-bone deficiency secondary to duplication of BHLHA9 gene have been ruled out by the array-CGH and MLPA analysis. To our knowledge, this is the first CdLS patient described with major ipsilateral malformations of both the upper and lower extremities, that even though this finding could be due to a random event, expands the spectrum of limb reduction defects in CdLS. © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. Source

Baquero-Montoya C.,University of Zaragoza | Baquero-Montoya C.,Hospital Clinico Universitario Lozano Blesa | Gil-Rodriguez M.C.,University of Zaragoza | Teresa-Rodrigo M.E.,University of Zaragoza | And 14 more authors.
Clinical Genetics

The disorders caused by mutations in genes encoding subunits and accessory proteins of cohesin complex are collectively termed as cohesinopathies. The best known cohesinopathy is Cornelia de Lange Syndrome (CdLS), which is a multisystem developmental disorder characterized by facial dysmorphism, limb malformations, growth and cognitive impairment. Mutations in five genes, encoding subunits of the cohesin complex (SMC1A, SMC3, RAD21) and its regulators (NIPBL, HDAC8), are responsible for ∼70% of CdLS cases. We describe a 16-year-old boy with facial dysmorphism, growth retardation, intellectual disability, hirsutism and small hands, who has a small Supernumerary Marker Chromosome (sSMC) present in mosaic form. sSMC is composed of two duplicated segments encompassing 17 genes including SMC1A gene, at the regions Xp11.22 and Xp11.21q11.1. Clinical comparison between our patient with a previously reported individual with a SMC1A duplication and four male carriers of similar sSMC reported in databases, suggest that they all share clinical features related to cohesinopathies. Although our patient does not have the classical CdLS craniofacial phenotype, he has pre and postnatal growth retardation, intellectual disability and mild musculoskeletal anomalies, features commonly seen in patients with cohesinopathies. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Source

Gil-Rodriguez M.C.,University of Zaragoza | Deardorff M.A.,Childrens Hospital of Philadelphia | Deardorff M.A.,University of Pennsylvania | Ansari M.,University of Edinburgh | And 69 more authors.
Human Mutation

Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS) is characterized by facial dysmorphism, growth failure, intellectual disability, limb malformations, and multiple organ involvement. Mutations in five genes, encoding subunits of the cohesin complex (SMC1A, SMC3, RAD21) and its regulators (NIPBL, HDAC8), account for at least 70% of patients with CdLS or CdLS-like phenotypes. To date, only the clinical features from a single CdLS patient with SMC3 mutation has been published. Here, we report the efforts of an international research and clinical collaboration to provide clinical comparison of 16 patients with CdLS-like features caused by mutations in SMC3. Modeling of the mutation effects on protein structure suggests a dominant-negative effect on the multimeric cohesin complex. When compared with typical CdLS, many SMC3-associated phenotypes are also characterized by postnatal microcephaly but with a less distinctive craniofacial appearance, a milder prenatal growth retardation that worsens in childhood, few congenital heart defects, and an absence of limb deficiencies. While most mutations are unique, two unrelated affected individuals shared the same mutation but presented with different phenotypes. This work confirms that de novo SMC3 mutations account for ~1%-2% of CdLS-like phenotypes. Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS) is a multisystem developmental disorder caused by mutation in five genes encoding subunits or regulators of the cohesin complex. To date, only the clinical features of the unique mildly affected CdLS male with SMC3 mutation have been published. Here, we report a series of 16 probands with 15 different intragenic mutations in SMC3 that provide a significant advance in our understanding of the clinical and molecular basis of Cornelia de Lange syndrome and overlapping phenotypes. © 2015 WILEY PERIODICALS, INC. Source

Baro B.,Institute Dinvestigacions Biomedica Of Bellvitge Idibell | Rodriguez-Rodriguez J.-A.,Institute Dinvestigacions Biomedica Of Bellvitge Idibell | Calabria I.,Institute Dinvestigacions Biomedica Of Bellvitge Idibell | Hernaez M.L.,Complutense University of Madrid | And 2 more authors.
PLoS Genetics

Exit from mitosis in budding yeast is triggered by activation of the key mitotic phosphatase Cdc14. At anaphase onset, the protease separase and Zds1 promote the downregulation of PP2ACdc55 phosphatase, which facilitates Cdk1-dependent phosphorylation of Net1 and provides the first wave of Cdc14 activity. Once Cdk1 activity starts to decline, the mitotic exit network (MEN) is activated to achieve full Cdc14 activation. Here we describe how the PP2ACdc55 phosphatase could act as a functional link between FEAR and MEN due to its action on Bfa1 and Mob1. We demonstrate that PP2ACdc55 regulates MEN activation by facilitating Cdc5- and Cdk1-dependent phosphorylation of Bfa1 and Mob1, respectively. Downregulation of PP2ACdc55 initiates MEN activity up to Cdc15 by Bfa1 inactivation. Surprisingly, the premature Bfa1 inactivation observed does not entail premature MEN activation, since an additional Cdk1-Clb2 inhibitory signal acting towards Dbf2-Mob1 activity restrains MEN activity until anaphase. In conclusion, we propose a clear picture of how PP2ACdc55 functions affect the regulation of various MEN components, contributing to mitotic exit. © 2013 Baro et al. Source

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