Qualai J.,Institute Dinvestigacio En Ciencies Of La Salut Germans Trias I Pujol Igtp |
Cantero J.,Institute Dinvestigacio En Ciencies Of La Salut Germans Trias I Pujol Igtp |
Li L.-X.,University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences |
Carrascosa J.M.,Autonomous University of Barcelona |
And 7 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2016
Efforts to develop vaccines that can elicit mucosal immune responses in the female genital tract against sexually transmitted infections have been hampered by an inability to measure immune responses in these tissues. The differential expression of adhesion molecules is known to confer site-dependent homing of circulating effector T cells to mucosal tissues. Specific homing molecules have been defined that can be measured in blood as surrogate markers of local immunity (e.g. α4β7 for gut). Here we analyzed the expression pattern of adhesion molecules by circulating effector T cells following mucosal infection of the female genital tract in mice and during a symptomatic episode of vaginosis in women. While CCR2, CCR5, CXCR6 and CD11c were preferentially expressed in a mouse model of Chlamydia infection, only CCR5 and CD11c were clearly expressed by effector T cells during bacterial vaginosis in women. Other homing molecules previously suggested as required for homing to the genital mucosa such as α4β1 and α4β7 were also differentially expressed in these patients. However, CD11c expression, an integrin chain rarely analyzed in the context of T cell immunity, was the most consistently elevated in all activated effector CD8+ T cell subsets analyzed. This molecule was also induced after systemic infection in mice, suggesting that CD11c is not exclusive of genital tract infection. Still, its increase in response to genital tract disorders may represent a novel surrogate marker of mucosal immunity in women, and warrants further exploration for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. © 2016 Qualai et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
De Falco L.,CEINGE |
Sanchez M.,Institute of Predictive and Personalized Medicine of Cancer IMPPC |
Sanchez M.,Institute Dinvestigacio En Ciencies Of La Salut Germans Trias I Pujol Igtp |
Silvestri L.,San Raffaele Scientific Institute |
And 12 more authors.
Haematologica | Year: 2013
Iron refractory iron deficiency anemia is a hereditary recessive anemia due to a defect in the TMPRSS6 gene encoding Matriptase-2. This protein is a transmembrane serine protease that plays an essential role in down-regulating hepcidin, the key regulator of iron homeostasis. Hallmarks of this disease are microcytic hypochromic anemia, low transferrin saturation and normal/high serum hepcidin values. The anemia appears in the post-natal period, although in some cases it is only diagnosed in adulthood. The disease is refractory to oral iron treatment but shows a slow response to intravenous iron injections and partial correction of the anemia. To date, 40 different Matriptase-2 mutations have been reported, affecting all the functional domains of the large ectodomain of the protein. In vitro experiments on transfected cells suggest that Matriptase-2 cleaves Hemojuvelin, a major regulator of hepcidin expression and that this function is altered in this genetic form of anemia. In contrast to the low/undetectable hepcidin levels observed in acquired iron deficiency, in patients with Matriptase-2 deficiency, serum hepcidin is inappropriately high for the low iron status and accounts for the absent/delayed response to oral iron treatment. A challenge for the clinicians and pediatricians is the recognition of the disorder among iron deficiency and other microcytic anemias commonly found in pediatric patients. The current treatment of iron refractory iron deficiency anemia is based on parenteral iron administration; in the future, manipulation of the hepcidin pathway with the aim of suppressing it might become an alternative therapeutic approach. © 2013 Ferrata Storti Foundation.
Colobran R.,Institute Dinvestigacio En Ciencies Of La Salut Germans Trias I Pujol Igtp |
Pedrosa E.,Institute Dinvestigacio En Ciencies Of La Salut Germans Trias I Pujol Igtp |
Carretero-Iglesia L.,IDIBAPS Institute dInvestigacions Biomediques August Pi i Sunyer |
Juan M.,IDIBAPS Institute dInvestigacions Biomediques August Pi i Sunyer
Clinical and Experimental Immunology | Year: 2010
Summary Genome copy number changes (copy number variations: CNVs) include inherited, de novo and somatically acquired deviations from a diploid state within a particular chromosomal segment. CNVs are frequent in higher eukaryotes and associated with a substantial portion of inherited and acquired risk for various human diseases. CNVs are distributed widely in the genomes of apparently healthy individuals and thus constitute significant amounts of population-based genomic variation. Human CNV loci are enriched for immune genes and one of the most striking examples of CNV in humans involves a genomic region containing the chemokine genes CCL3L and CCL4L. The CCL3L-CCL4L copy number variable region (CNVR) shows extensive architectural complexity, with smaller CNVs within the larger ones and with interindividual variation in breakpoints. Furthermore, the individual genes embedded in this CNVR account for an additional level of genetic and mRNA complexity: CCL4L1 and CCL4L2 have identical exonic sequences but produce a different pattern of mRNAs. CCL3L2 was considered previously as a CCL3L1 pseudogene, but is actually transcribed. Since 2005, CCL3L-CCL4L CNV has been associated extensively with various human immunodeficiency virus-related outcomes, but some recent studies called these associations into question. This controversy may be due in part to the differences in alternative methods for quantifying gene copy number and differentiating the individual genes. This review summarizes and discusses the current knowledge about CCL3L-CCL4L CNV and points out that elucidating their complete phenotypic impact requires dissecting the combinatorial genomic complexity posed by various proportions of distinct CCL3L and CCL4L genes among individuals. © 2010 British Society for Immunology.