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Fagundo A.B.,University of Barcelona | Fagundo A.B.,CIBER ISCIII | Jimenez-Murcia S.,University of Barcelona | Jimenez-Murcia S.,CIBER ISCIII | And 31 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

The prefrontal (PFC) and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) appear to be associated with both executive functions and olfaction. However, there is little data relating olfactory processing and executive functions in humans. The present study aimed at exploring the role of olfaction on executive functioning, making a distinction between primary and more cognitive aspects of olfaction. Three executive tasks of similar difficulty were used. One was used to assess hot executive functions (Iowa Gambling Task-IGT), and two as a measure of cold executive functioning (Stroop Colour and Word Test-SCWT and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test- WCST). Sixty two healthy participants were included: 31 with normosmia and 31 with hyposmia. Olfactory abilities were assessed using the ''Sniffin' Sticks'' test and the olfactory threshold, odour discrimination and odour identification measures were obtained. All participants were female, aged between 18 and 60. Results showed that participants with hyposmia displayed worse performance in decision making (IGT; Cohen's-d = 0.91) and cognitive flexibility (WCST; Cohen's-d between 0.54 and 0.68) compared to those with normosmia. Multiple regression adjusted by the covariates participants' age and education level showed a positive association between odour identification and the cognitive inhibition response (SCWT-interference; Beta = 0.29; p = .034). The odour discrimination capacity was not a predictor of the cognitive executive performance. Our results suggest that both hot and cold executive functions seem to be associated with higher-order olfactory functioning in humans. These results robustly support the hypothesis that olfaction and executive measures have a common neural substrate in PFC and OFC, and suggest that olfaction might be a reliable cognitive marker in psychiatric and neurologic disorders. © 2015 Fagundo et al. Source


Aguera Z.,University of Barcelona | Aguera Z.,CIBER ISCIII | Romero X.,University of Barcelona | Arcelus J.,Loughborough University | And 32 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

The restoration of body composition (BC) parameters is considered to be one of the most important goals in the treatment of patients with anorexia nervosa (AN). However, little is known about differences between AN diagnostic subtypes [restricting (AN-R) and binge/purging (AN-BP)] and weekly changes in BC during refeeding treatment. Therefore, the main objectives of our study were twofold: 1) to assess the changes in BC throughout nutritional treatment in an AN sample and 2) to analyze predictors of BC changes during treatment, as well as predictors of treatment outcome. The whole sample comprised 261 participants [118 adult females with AN (70 AN-R vs. 48 AN-BP), and 143 healthy controls]. BC was measured weekly during 15 weeks of day-hospital treatment using bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). Assessment measures also included the Eating Disorders Inventory-2, as well as a number of other clinical indices. Overall, the results showed that AN-R and AN-BP patients statistically differed in all BC measures at admission. However, no significant time×group interaction was found for almost all BC parameters. Significant time×group interactions were only found for basal metabolic rate (p = .041) and body mass index (BMI) (p = .035). Multiple regression models showed that the best predictors of prepost changes in BC parameters (namely fat-free mass, muscular mass, total body water and BMI) were the baseline values of BC parameters. Stepwise predictive logistic regressions showed that only BMI and age were significantly associated with outcome, but not with the percentage of body fat. In conclusion, these data suggest that although AN patients tended to restore all BC parameters during nutritional treatment, only AN-BP patients obtained the same fat mass values as healthy controls. Put succinctly, the best predictors of changes in BC were baseline BC values, which did not, however, seem to influence treatment outcome. © 2015 Agüera et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Source


Sauchelli S.,University of Barcelona | Sauchelli S.,CIBER ISCIII | Arcelus J.,University of Leicester | Sanchez I.,University of Barcelona | And 29 more authors.
European Psychiatry | Year: 2015

Objective: Elevated physical activity has been observed in some patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) despite their emaciated condition. However, its effects on treatment outcome remain unclear. This study aimed to examine objectively measured physical activity in this clinical population and how it might be related to a partial hospitalization therapy response, after considering potential confounders. Method: The sample comprised 88 AN patients consecutively enrolled in a day hospital treatment program, and 116 healthy-weight controls. All participants were female and a baseline assessment took place using an accelerometer (Actiwatch AW7) to measure physical activity, the Eating Disorders Inventory-2 and the Depression subscale of the Symptom Checklist-Revised. Outcome was evaluated upon the termination of the treatment program by expert clinicians. Results: Although AN patients and controls did not differ in the average time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) (P = .21), nor daytime physical activity (P =.34), fewer AN patients presented a high physical activity profile compared to the controls (37% vs. 61%, respectively; P = .014). Both lower levels of MVPA and greater eating disorder severity had a direct effect on a poor treatment outcome. Depression symptoms in the patients were associated with lower MVPA, as well as with an older age, a shorter duration of the disorder and greater eating disorder psychopathology. Conclusions: There is a notable variation in the physical activity profile of AN patients, characterized by either low or very high patterns. Physical activity is a highly relevant issue in AN that must be taken into account during the treatment process. © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. Source


Pastor A.,Integrative Pharmacology and Systems Neuroscience Research Group | Pastor A.,University of Barcelona | Pastor A.,CIBER ISCIII | Fernandez-Aranda F.,University of Barcelona | And 23 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2016

The endocannabinoid (eCB) system can promote food intake by increasing odor detection in mice. The eCB system is over-active in human obesity. Our aim is to measure circulating eCB concentrations and olfactory capacity in a human sample that includes people with obesity and explore the possible interaction between olfaction, obesity and the eCB system. The study sample was made up of 161 females with five groups of body mass index subcategories ranging from under-weight to morbidly obese.We assessed olfactory capacity with the "SniffińSticks" test, which measures olfactory threshold-discrimination-identification (TDI) capacity.We measured plasma concentrations of the eCBs 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) and N-arachidonoylethanolamine or anandamide (AEA), and several eCBrelated compounds, 2-acylglycerols and N-acylethanolamines. 2-AG and other 2-acylglycerols fasting plasma circulating plasma concentrations were higher in obese and morbidly obese subjects. AEA and other N-acylethanolamine circulating concentrations were lower in under-weight subjects. Olfactory TDI scores were lower in obese and morbidly obese subjects. Lower TDI scores were independently associated with higher 2-AG fasting plasma circulating concentrations, higher %body fat, and higher body mass index, after controllingfor age, smoking, menstruation, and use of contraceptives. Our results show that obese subjects have a lower olfactory capacity than non-obese ones and that elevated fasting plasma circulating 2-AG concentrations in obesity are linked to a lower olfactory capacity. In agreement with previous studies we show that eCBs AEA and 2-AG, and their respective congeners have a distinct profile in relation to body mass index. The present report is the first study in humans in which olfactory capacity and circulating eCB concentrations have been measured in the same subjects. © 2016 Pastor et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Source


Fernandez-Aranda F.,University of Barcelona | Fernandez-Aranda F.,CIBER ISCIII | Sauchelli S.,University of Barcelona | Pastor A.,CIBER ISCIII | And 34 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

Background: Endocannabinoids and temperament traits have been linked to both physical activity and body mass index (BMI) however no study has explored how these factors interact in females. The aims of this cross-sectional study were to 1) examine differences among distinct BMI groups on daytime physical activity and time spent in moderate-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), temperament traits and plasma endocannabinoid concentrations; and 2) explore the association and interaction between MVPA, temperament, endocannabinoids and BMI. Methods: Physical activity was measured with the wrist-worn accelerometer Actiwatch AW7, in a sample of 189 female participants (43 morbid obese, 30 obese, and 116 healthy-weight controls). The Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised questionnaire was used to assess personality traits. BMI was calculated by bioelectrical impedance analysis via the TANITA digital scale. Blood analyses were conducted to measure levels of endocannabinoids and endocannabinoid-related compounds. Path-analysis was performed to examine the association between predictive variables and MVPA. Results: Obese groups showed lower MVPA and dysfunctional temperament traits compared to healthy-weight controls. Plasma concentrations of 2-arachidonoylglyceryl (2-AG) were greater in obese groups. Path-analysis identified a direct effect between greater MVPA and low BMI (b = -0.13, p = .039) and high MVPA levels were associated with elevated anandamide (AEA) levels (b = 0.16, p = .049) and N-oleylethanolamide (OEA) levels (b = 0.22, p = .004), as well as high Novelty seeking (b = 0.18, p<.001) and low Harm avoidance (b = -0.16, p<.001). Conclusions: Obese individuals showed a distinct temperament profile and circulating endocannabinoids compared to controls. Temperament and endocannabinoids may act as moderators of the low MVPA in obesity. © 2014 Fernández-Aranda et al. Source

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