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Allemani C.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine | Weir H.K.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Carreira H.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine | Harewood R.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine | And 19 more authors.
The Lancet

Background Worldwide data for cancer survival are scarce. We aimed to initiate worldwide surveillance of cancer survival by central analysis of population-based registry data, as a metric of the effectiveness of health systems, and to inform global policy on cancer control. Methods Individual tumour records were submitted by 279 population-based cancer registries in 67 countries for 25·7 million adults (age 15-99 years) and 75 000 children (age 0-14 years) diagnosed with cancer during 1995-2009 and followed up to Dec 31, 2009, or later. We looked at cancers of the stomach, colon, rectum, liver, lung, breast (women), cervix, ovary, and prostate in adults, and adult and childhood leukaemia. Standardised quality control procedures were applied; errors were corrected by the registry concerned. We estimated 5-year net survival, adjusted for background mortality in every country or region by age (single year), sex, and calendar year, and by race or ethnic origin in some countries. Estimates were age-standardised with the International Cancer Survival Standard weights. Findings 5-year survival from colon, rectal, and breast cancers has increased steadily in most developed countries. For patients diagnosed during 2005-09, survival for colon and rectal cancer reached 60% or more in 22 countries around the world; for breast cancer, 5-year survival rose to 85% or higher in 17 countries worldwide. Liver and lung cancer remain lethal in all nations: for both cancers, 5-year survival is below 20% everywhere in Europe, in the range 15-19% in North America, and as low as 7-9% in Mongolia and Thailand. Striking rises in 5-year survival from prostate cancer have occurred in many countries: survival rose by 10-20% between 1995-99 and 2005-09 in 22 countries in South America, Asia, and Europe, but survival still varies widely around the world, from less than 60% in Bulgaria and Thailand to 95% or more in Brazil, Puerto Rico, and the USA. For cervical cancer, national estimates of 5-year survival range from less than 50% to more than 70%; regional variations are much wider, and improvements between 1995-99 and 2005-09 have generally been slight. For women diagnosed with ovarian cancer in 2005-09, 5-year survival was 40% or higher only in Ecuador, the USA, and 17 countries in Asia and Europe. 5-year survival for stomach cancer in 2005-09 was high (54-58%) in Japan and South Korea, compared with less than 40% in other countries. By contrast, 5-year survival from adult leukaemia in Japan and South Korea (18-23%) is lower than in most other countries. 5-year survival from childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia is less than 60% in several countries, but as high as 90% in Canada and four European countries, which suggests major deficiencies in the management of a largely curable disease. Interpretation International comparison of survival trends reveals very wide differences that are likely to be attributable to differences in access to early diagnosis and optimum treatment. Continuous worldwide surveillance of cancer survival should become an indispensable source of information for cancer patients and researchers and a stimulus for politicians to improve health policy and health-care systems. Funding Canadian Partnership Against Cancer (Toronto, Canada), Cancer Focus Northern Ireland (Belfast, UK), Cancer Institute New South Wales (Sydney, Australia), Cancer Research UK (London, UK), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (Atlanta, GA, USA), Swiss Re (London, UK), Swiss Cancer Research foundation (Bern, Switzerland), Swiss Cancer League (Bern, Switzerland), and University of Kentucky (Lexington, KY, USA). © 2015 Allemani et al. Open Access article distributed under the terms of CC BY. Source

Menke A.,Johns Hopkins University | Muntner P.,University of Alabama at Birmingham | Fernandez-Real J.M.,Institute Dinvestigacio Biomedica Of Girona | Fernandez-Real J.M.,CIBER ISCIII | And 2 more authors.
Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases

Background and Aims: Elevated iron biomarkers are associated with diabetes and other cardiometabolic abnormalities in the general population. It is unclear whether they are associated with an increased risk of all-cause or cause-specific mortality. The purpose of the current analysis was to evaluate the association of ferritin and transferrin saturation levels with all-cause, cardiovascular, and cancer mortality in the general US adult population. Methods and Results: A prospective cohort study was conducted with 12,258 adults participating in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), a nationally representative sample of the US population. Study participants were recruited in 1988-1994 and followed through December 31, 2006 for all-cause, cardiovascular disease, and cancer mortality. The multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence interval) for all-cause mortality comparing the fourth versus the second quartiles of ferritin and transferrin saturation were 1.09 (0.82-1.44; p-trend across quartiles = 0.92) and 1.08 (0.82-1.43; p-trend across quartiles = 0.62), respectively, for men, 1.43 (0.63-3.23; p-trend across quartiles = 0.31) and 1.48 (0.70-3.11; p-trend across quartiles = 0.60), respectively, for premenopausal women, and 1.03 (0.79-1.34; p-trend across quartiles = 0.95) and 1.17 (0.92-1.49; p-trend across quartiles = 0.63), respectively, for postmenopausal women. Quartile of ferritin and transferrin saturation also showed no association between biomarkers of iron status and mortality. Conclusions: In a large nationally representative sample of US adults, within the spectrum of normal iron metabolism, ferritin and transferrin saturation were not associated with risk of mortality among people who were not taking iron supplements and did not have a baseline history of cardiovascular disease or cancer. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. Source

Rodriguez-Cuenca S.,University of Cambridge | Carobbio S.,University of Cambridge | Velagapudi V.R.,VTT Technical Research Center of Finland | Barbarroja N.,VTT Technical Research Center of Finland | And 6 more authors.
Molecular and Cellular Biology

Optimal lipid storage and mobilization are essential for efficient adipose tissue. Nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) regulates adipocyte differentiation and lipid deposition, but its role in lipolysis and dysregulation in obesity is not well defined. This investigation aimed to understand the molecular impact of dysfunctional PPARγ on the lipolytic axis and to explore whether these defects are also confirmed in common forms of human obesity. For this purpose, we used the P465L PPARγ mouse as a model of dysfunctional PPARγ that recapitulates the human pparγ mutation (P467L). We demonstrated that defective PPARγ impairs catecholamine-induced lipolysis. This abnormal lipolytic response is exacerbated by a state of positive energy balance in leptin-deficient ob/ob mice. We identified the protein kinase A (PKA) network as a PPARγ-dependent regulatory node of the lipolytic response. Specifically, defective PPARγ is associated with decreased basal expression of prkaca (PKAcatα) and d-akap1, the lipase genes Pnplaz (ATGL) and Lipe (HSL), and lipid droplet protein genes fsp27 and adrp in vivo and in vitro. Our data indicate that PPARγ is required for activation of the lipolytic regulatory network, dysregulation of which is an important feature of obesity-induced insulin resistance in humans. © 2012, American Society for Microbiology. Source

Beltran-Alvarez P.,Institute Dinvestigacio Biomedica Of Girona | Beltran-Alvarez P.,University of Girona | Pagans S.,Institute Dinvestigacio Biomedica Of Girona | Pagans S.,University of Girona | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Proteome Research

The α subunit of the cardiac sodium channel (Na v1.5) is an essential protein in the initial depolarization phase of the cardiomyocyte action potential. Post-translational modifications such as phosphorylation are known to regulate Na v1.5 function. Here, we used a proteomic approach for the study of the post-translational modifications of Na v1.5 using tsA201 cells as a model system. We generated a stable cell line expressing Na v1.5, purified the sodium channel, and analyzed Na v1.5 by MALDI-TOF and LC-MS/MS. We report the identification of arginine methylation as a novel post-translational modification of Na v1.5. R513, R526, and R680, located in the linker between domains I and II in Na v1.5, were found in mono- or dimethylated states. The functional relevance of arginine methylation in Na v1.5 is underscored by the fact that R526H and R680H are known Na v1.5 mutations causing Brugada and long QT type 3 syndromes, respectively. Our work describes for the first time arginine methylation in the voltage-gated ion channel superfamily. © 2011 American Chemical Society. Source

Fernandez-Real J.M.,Institute Dinvestigacio Biomedica Of Girona | Moreno-Navarrete J.M.,Institute Dinvestigacio Biomedica Of Girona | Ortega F.,Institute Dinvestigacio Biomedica Of Girona | Ricart W.,Institute Dinvestigacio Biomedica Of Girona

Decreased serum creatinine concentration has been recently described to constitute a new risk factor of type 2 diabetes. Increased free radicals have been consistently associated with decreased serum creatinine and with cellular senescence. Telomere length is considered as a biological marker for senescence. We aimed to study the association of telomere length with serum creatinine. Telomere length of subcutaneous adipose tissue cells was measured in a sample of obese and nonobese subjects (n = 49). Telomere length of subcutaneous adipose tissue cells was positively associated with serum creatinine (r = 0.40, P = 0.004), i.e., the lower the telomere length, the lower the serum creatinine, but not with glomerular filtration rate (GFR). In addition, telomere length was negatively associated with BMI (r = 0.45, P = 0.001) and systolic blood pressure (r = 0.41, P = 0.003). In a multiple linear regression analysis, BMI (P = 0.005), systolic blood pressure (P = 0.01) and telomere length (P = 0.03) independently contributed to 37% of serum creatinine variance after controlling for sex and age. In conclusion, the association of serum creatinine with a marker of cellular senescence suggests an underlying mechanism influencing both decreased serum creatinine and increased risk of type 2 diabetes. © 2011 The Obesity Society. Source

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