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Silva-Hidalgo G.,Autonomous University of Sinaloa | Lopez-Moreno H.S.,Autonomous University of Sinaloa | Ortiz-Navarrete V.F.,Autonomous University of Sinaloa | Ortiz-Navarrete V.F.,National Polytechnic Institute of Mexico | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine | Year: 2013

Salmonellosis is an important zoonotic disease but little is known about the role that free-living animals play as carriers of this pathogen. Moreover, the primary route of infection in the wild needs to be elucidated. The aim of this study was to determine the source and the route of transmission of Salmonella enterica serovar Albany (S. Albany) infection in captive zoo wild animals in the Culiacán Zoo. A total of 267 samples were analyzed including 220 fecal samples from zoo animals, 15 fecal samples from rodents, 5 pooled samples each of two insects (Musca domestica and Periplaneta americana), and 22 samples of animal feed. We detected S. Albany in 28 (10.5%) of the samples analyzed, including in samples from raw chicken meat. Characterization of isolates was performed by serotyping and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. All isolates shared a single pulsed-field gel electrophoresis profile, indicating a possible common origin. These data suggest that the infected meat consumed by the wild felines was the primary source of infection in this zoo. It is likely that the pathogen was shed in the feces and disseminated by insects and rats to other locations in the zoo. Copyright 2013 by American Association of Zoo Veterinarians. Source

Han X.Y.,University of Houston | Sizer K.C.,University of Houston | Velarde-Felix J.S.,Autonomous University of Sinaloa | Frias-Castro L.O.,Autonomous University of Sinaloa | Vargas-Ocampo F.,Institute Diagnostico y Referencia Epidemiologicos InDRE
International Journal of Dermatology | Year: 2012

Background Mycobacterium leprae was the only known cause of leprosy until 2008, when a new species, named Mycobacterium lepromatosis, was found to cause diffuse lepromatous leprosy (DLL), a unique form of leprosy endemic in Mexico. Methods We sought to differentiate the leprosy agents among 120 Mexican patients with various clinical forms of leprosy and to compare their relative prevalences and disease features. Archived skin biopsy specimens from these patients were tested for both M. leprae and M. lepromatosis using polymerase chain reaction-based species-specific assays. Results Etiologic species were confirmed in 87 (72.5%) patients, of whom 55 were infected with M. lepromatosis, 18 with M. leprae, and 14 with both organisms. The endemic regions of each agent differed but overlapped. Patients with M. lepromatosis were younger and were distributed across more states; their clinical diagnoses included DLL (n=13), lepromatous leprosy (LL) (n=34), and eight other forms of leprosy. By contrast, the diagnoses of patients with M. leprae did not include DLL but did include LL (n=15) and three other forms of leprosy. Thus, M. lepromatosis caused DLL specifically (P=0.023). Patients with M. lepromatosis also showed more variable skin lesions; the extremities were the most common sites of biopsy in these patients. Finally, patients with dual infections manifested all clinical forms and accounted for 16.1% of all species-confirmed cases. Conclusions Mycobacterium lepromatosis is another cause of leprosy and is probably more prevalent than M. leprae in Mexico. It mainly causes LL and also specifically DLL. Dual infections caused by both species may occur in endemic areas. © 2012 The International Society of Dermatology. Source

Hollenbach J.A.,Childrens Hospital Oakland Research Institute | Augusto D.G.,Federal University of Parana | Alaez C.,Institute Diagnostico y Referencia Epidemiologicos InDRE | Bubnova L.,Russian Research Institute of Hematology and Transfusiology | And 15 more authors.
International Journal of Immunogenetics | Year: 2013

In the last fifteen years, published reports have described KIR gene-content frequency distributions in more than 120 populations worldwide. However, there have been limited studies examining these data in aggregate to detect overall patterns of variation at regional and global levels. Here, we present a summary of the collection of KIR gene-content data for 105 worldwide populations collected as part of the 15th and 16th International Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics Workshops, and preliminary results for data analysis. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Source

Sanchez-Camargo C.L.,Medecins Sans Frontieres | Sanchez-Camargo C.L.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | Sanchez-Camargo C.L.,Antonio Narino University | Albajar-Vinas P.,WHO Program on Control of Chagas Disease | And 13 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Microbiology | Year: 2014

Chagas disease is one of the main public health issues in Latin America. Increasingly during the past few decades, Trypanosoma cruzi infection has been detected in North America, Europe, and the Western Pacific, mainly as a result of population movement. The limited availability of rapid serological diagnostic tests hinders rapid diagnosis and early treatment in areas of endemicity and nonendemicity. In collaboration with 11 national reference laboratories (NRLs) from different geographical areas, we evaluated the performances of commercialized serological rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) for T. cruzi infection. Eleven commercialized T. cruzi infection RDTs were evaluated on a total of 474 samples extensively tested with at least three different techniques for Chagas disease, maintained at controlled low temperatures, and stored in the serum banks of the 11 NRLs. We measured the sensitivity, specificity, and concordance of each RDT and provided an additional questionnaire to evaluate its ease of use. The selected RDTs in this study were performed under controlled laboratory conditions. Out of the 11 RDTs, we found 8 of them to be useful, with the cassette format favored over the strip. We did not observe significant differences in RDT performances in the different regions. Overall, the performance results were lower than those disclosed by the manufacturers. The results of this evaluation validate the possibility of using RDTs to diagnose Chagas disease, thereby decreasing the time to treatment at a primary health care facility for patients who are willing to be treated. Further studies should be conducted in the laboratory and in the field to confirm these data, expressly to evaluate reproducibility in resource-limited settings, or using whole blood in clinical settings in areas of endemicity and nonendemicity. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved. Source

Ucisik-Akkaya E.,HUMIGEN LLC | Davis C.F.,HUMIGEN LLC | Gorodezky C.,Institute Diagnostico y Referencia Epidemiologicos InDRE | Alaez C.,Institute Diagnostico y Referencia Epidemiologicos InDRE | Dorak M.T.,HUMIGEN LLC
Cell Stress and Chaperones | Year: 2010

Three heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) genes, HSPA1L, HSPA1A, and HSPA1B, are located within the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class III region. HSPs act as stress signals and regulate natural killer cell response to cancer. HSP70 gene polymorphisms show disease associations partly due to their linkage disequilibrium with HLA alleles. To systematically evaluate their associations with childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), we examined the three functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) rs2227956 (T493M) in HSPA1L, rs1043618 in HSPA1A 5′ UTR, and rs1061581 (Q351Q) in HSPA1B by TaqMan assays or polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism in 114 ALL cases and 414 controls from Wales (UK), in 100 Mexican Mestizo ALL cases and 253 controls belonging to the same ethnic group, and in a panel of 82 HLA-typed reference cell line samples. Homozygosity for HSPA1B rs1061581 minor allele G was associated with protection (odds ratio (OR)∈=∈0.37, 95% confidence interval (CI)∈=∈0.16-0.78; P∈=∈0.007) with gene-dosage effect (additive model) reaching significance (P∈=∈0.0001) in the Welsh case-control group. This association was replicated in the second case-control group from Mexico (OR (recessive model)∈=∈0.49, 95% CI∈=∈0.24-0.96; P∈=∈0.03), and the pooled analysis yielded a strong association (Mantel-Haenszel OR∈=∈0.43, 95% CI∈=∈0.27-0.69, P∈=∈0.0004). The association was stronger in males in each group and in the pooled analysis. A three-SNP haplotype including the major allele A of rs1061581 showed a highly significant increase in Welsh cases compared with respective controls (6.7% vs 1.8%; P∈=∈0.0003) due to the difference between male cases and controls. The protective allele of rs1061581 occurred more frequently on the HLA-DRB3 haplotypes (especially DRB1 03) in the cell line panel, but the HSPA1B association was independent from the HLA-DRB4 association previously detected in the same case-control group from Wales (adjusted P∈=∈0.001). Given the cancer promoting roles played by HSPs intracellularly as well as roles in immune surveillance when expressed on the cell surface and the known correlations between expression levels and the HSP polymorphisms, these results are likely to indicate a primary association and warrant detailed assessment in childhood ALL development. © 2009 Cell Stress Society International. Source

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