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Meza-Marquez O.G.,Escuela Nacional de Ciencias Biologicas | Gallardo-Velazquez T.,Escuela Nacional de Ciencias Biologicas | Dorantes-Alvarez L.,Escuela Nacional de Ciencias Biologicas | Osorio-Revilla G.,Escuela Nacional de Ciencias Biologicas | De La Rosa Arana J.L.,Institute Diagnostico y Referencia Epidemiologicos
Analyst | Year: 2011

A fast and simple screening method for the determination of clenbuterol at the ppb level in a murine model was demonstrated by Mid Infrared (MIR) and Raman spectroscopy in conjunction with multivariate analysis. In order to build the calibration models to quantify clenbuterol in rat meat, mixtures of rat meat and clenbuterol were prepared in a range of 5-10000 ppb. Partial Least Square (PLS) analysis was used to build the calibration model. The results shown that Mid Infrared and Raman spectroscopy were efficient, but Mid Infrared (R 2 = 0.966 and SEC = 0.27) were superior to Raman (R 2 = 0.914 and SEC = 1.167). The SIMCA model developed showed 100% classification rate of rat meat samples with or without clenbuterol. The results were confirmed with contaminated meat samples from animals treated with clenbuterol. Chemometric models represent an attractive option for meat quality screening without sample pretreatments which can identify veterinary medicinal products at the ppb level. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry. Source

Sanchez Perez H.J.,Colegio de Mexico | Diaz-Vazquez A.,Colegio de Mexico | Najera-Ortiz J.C.,Colegio de Mexico | Balandrano S.,Institute Diagnostico y Referencia Epidemiologicos | Martin-Mateo M.,Autonomous University of Barcelona
International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease | Year: 2010

OBJECTIVES: To analyse the proportion of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) in cultures performed during the period 2000-2002 in Los Altos, Selva and Norte regions, Chiapas, Mexico, and to analyse MDR-TB in terms of clinical and sociodemographic indicators. METHODS: Cross-sectional study of patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) from the above regions. Drug susceptibility testing results from two research projects were analysed, as were those of routine sputum samples sent in by health personnel for processing (n = 114). MDR-TB was analysed in terms of the various variables of interest using bivariate tests of association and logistic regression. RESULTS: The proportion of primary MDR-TB was 4.6% (2 of 43), that of secondary MDR-TB was 29.2% (7/24), while among those whose history of treatment was unknown the proportion was 14.3% (3/21). According to the logistic regression model, the variables most highly associated with MDR-TB were as follows: having received anti-tuberculosis treatment previously, cough of >3 years' duration and not being indigenous. CONCLUSIONS: The high proportion of MDR cases found in the regions studied shows that it is necessary to significantly improve the control and surveillance of PTB. © 2010 The Union. Source

Gonzalez-Gomez B.E.,Institute Diagnostico y Referencia Epidemiologicos
Journal of the Egyptian Society of Parasitology | Year: 2012

Human onchocerciasis is a disease that remains as an important public health problem. The morphometric and physical characteristics of 363 Onchocerca volvulus nodules collected in the major endemic focus of onchocerciasis in Southern Chiapas (Soconusco), was assessed. In the present work we found that treatment the morphometry of 363 onchocercal nodules preserved in a 67% glycerol solution was determined by measuring the length, width and thick of each nodule with a Vernier caliper. The mass was determined with an analytical balance and the volume by measuring the water displacement, while the specific gravity was calculated by dividing mass over the volume. Statistical analysis was calculated for each parameter. The results showed that the nodules were rather longer than wider or thicker. Morphometric characteristics were 9.87 +/-3.70 (mean +/- standard deviation), 7.52 +/- 2.81, and 4.62 +/-+/- 2.06 mm for length, width and thick respectively. In regard to the shape, 62.81% of the nodules showed a lenticular shape, while 18.18% were spherical and 19.01% were ovoid. Based on the distribution of frequencies of the length, the nodules were classified in three groups: the "small" (5.77 +/- 0.73 mm; n = 104, 28.65%), the "medium" group (9.86 +/- 2.05 mm; n = 203 nodules, 55.92%), and the group of the "big" ones (16.03 +/- 1.91 mm; n = 56, 15.43%). Moreover, the physical characteristics were: for the mass 0.33 +/- 0.24 g, the volume of displaced water was 0.28 +/- 0.26 ml, and the specific gravity was 1.10 +/- 0.55 g/ml. The results indicated that most of the Mexican Onchocerca nodules have a lenticular shape with average size of 10x7x5 mm, which is useful in the knowledge of the genus biodiversity and can be taken as a parameter in clinical or epidemiological trials, where onchocerciasis remains as a public health problem. Source

Sarmiento-Silva R.E.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Nakamura-Lopez Y.,Consejo Estatal para la Prevencion y Control del Sida Centro Ambulatorio para la Prevencion | Vaughan G.,Institute Diagnostico y Referencia Epidemiologicos
Viruses | Year: 2012

The bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) is an enveloped, negative sense, single-stranded RNA virus belonging to the pneumovirus genus within the family Paramyxoviridae. BRSV has been recognized as a major cause of respiratory disease in young calves since the early 1970s. The analysis of BRSV infection was originally hampered by its characteristic lability and poor growth in vitro. However, the advent of numerous immunological and molecular methods has facilitated the study of BRSV enormously. The knowledge gained from these studies has also provided the opportunity to develop safe, stable, attenuated virus vaccine candidates. Nonetheless, many aspects of the epidemiology, molecular epidemiology and evolution of the virus are still not fully understood. The natural course of infection is rather complex and further complicates diagnosis, treatment and the implementation of preventive measures aimed to control the disease. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms by which BRSV is able to establish infection is needed to prevent viral and disease spread. This review discusses important information regarding the epidemiology and molecular epidemiology of BRSV worldwide, and it highlights the importance of viral evolution in virus transmission. © 2012 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. Source

Goncalves Rossi L.M.,Sao Paulo State University | Escobar-Gutierrez A.,Institute Diagnostico y Referencia Epidemiologicos | Rahal P.,Sao Paulo State University
Viruses | Year: 2015

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is an important public health problem worldwide. HCV exploits complex molecular mechanisms, which result in a high degree of intrahost genetic heterogeneity. This high degree of variability represents a challenge for the accurate establishment of genetic relatedness between cases and complicates the identification of sources of infection. Tracking HCV infections is crucial for the elucidation of routes of transmission in a variety of settings. Therefore, implementation of HCV advanced molecular surveillance (AMS) is essential for disease control. Accounting for virulence is also important for HCV AMS and both viral and host factors contribute to the disease outcome. Therefore, HCV AMS requires the incorporation of host factors as an integral component of the algorithms used to monitor disease occurrence. Importantly, implementation of comprehensive global databases and data mining are also needed for the proper study of the mechanisms responsible for HCV transmission. Here, we review molecular aspects associated with HCV transmission, as well as the most recent technological advances used for virus and host characterization. Additionally, the cornerstone discoveries that have defined the pathway for viral characterization are presented and the importance of implementing advanced HCV molecular surveillance is highlighted. © 2015 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. Source

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