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Trinchero P.,Amphos21 Consulting S.L | Delos A.,Amphos21 Consulting S.L | Delos A.,Arcadis | Molinero J.,Amphos21 Consulting S.L | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Hydrology | Year: 2014

The origin and transport of dissolved gases in the geosphere is of interest for assessment studies of nuclear waste repositories. In this paper, we analyse available field measurements of helium, methane and hydrogen at three Fennoscandian sites: Forsmark and Laxemar in Sweden and Olkiluoto in Finland. The field data are interpreted using different analytical models all based on the one-dimensional diffusion equation. The results of the different models provide estimates about the amount of deep gas flux, the in situ production and the groundwater residence time of the considered sites. The computed helium fluxes, which fall within the lower range of crustal degassing fluxes reported by Torgersen (2010), are strictly related with the high tightness of the considered fracture media. The very high estimates of groundwater residence time indicate that, at the considered depths, there are only very few flowing fractures while in the rest of the fractured domain groundwater has been almost motionless during a whole glacial cycle. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Koenig S.,CSIC - Institute of Marine Sciences | Koenig S.,Institute Diagnostico Ambiental y Estudios del Agua IDAeA CSIC | Sole M.,CSIC - Institute of Marine Sciences
Marine Environmental Research | Year: 2012

Biomarker assays are widely used as proxies for contaminant-induced effects in aquatic organisms. However, in many cases, their intrinsic natural variability due to exogenous and endogenous factors makes the interpretation of biomarker data difficult. In the present study, we investigated the natural fluctuations of six hepatic biomarkers, namely ethoxyresorufin. -O-deethylase (EROD) in fish and pentoxyresorufin. -O-deethylase (PROD) in crustacea, catalase (CAT), carboxylesterase (CbE), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), total glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and glutathione reductase (GR) in two deep-sea fish species, namely Alepocephalus rostratus and Lepidion lepidion and the decapod crustacean Aristeus antennatus. The NW Mediterranean deep-sea environment is characterized by very stable temperature and salinity conditions, allowing the exclusion of these two factors as potential sources of interference with biomarker activities. Biomarker results exhibited a clear influence of reproductive processes on enzyme activities, in particular in A. rostratus, which presented a pronounced seasonal pattern linked to variations in the gonadosomatic index (GSI). In addition, other factors such as food availability may also have influenced the observed variability, in particular in specimens of L. lepidion, which did not exhibit variations in reproductive activity throughout the sampling period. Depth-related variability did not exhibit a clear trend and fluctuations across sampling depths were not attributable to any specific factor. Body size had also a significant influence on some biomarkers, although allometric scaling of certain enzyme activities appears to be species-specific. The present work has thus shown that despite the lack of fluctuations of abiotic parameters such as temperature and salinity, biomarker activities in deep-sea organisms still exhibit significant variability, mainly as a result of reproductive processes and food availability. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Benedicto J.,Spanish Institute of Oceanography | Andral B.,French Research Institute for Exploitation of the Sea | Martinez-Gomez C.,Spanish Institute of Oceanography | Guitart C.,Spanish Institute of Oceanography | And 9 more authors.
Journal of Environmental Monitoring | Year: 2011

A large scale study of trace metal contamination (Hg, Cd, Pb and Ni) by means of caged mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis was undertaken along the coastal waters of the Western Mediterranean Sea within the context of the MYTILOS project. Individual mussels from an homogeneous population (shell size 50 ± 5 mm) obtained from an aquaculture farm were consecutively caged and deployed at 123 sites located in the Alborán, North-Western, South-Western and Tyrrhenian sub-basins for 12 weeks (April-July) in 2004, 2005 and 2006. After cage recoveries, both the metal content in the whole mussel tissue and the allometric parameters were measured. Statistical analysis of the datasets showed significant differences in concentrations between sub-basins for some metals and mussel condition index (CI). Linear regression models coupled to the CI were revisited for the data adjustment of certain trace metals (Hg, Cd and Ni), and four level categories were statistically derived to facilitate interregional comparison. Seawater masses surrounding coastal areas impacted by run-off from land mineralised coasts and industrial activities displayed the highest concentration ranges (Hg: 0.15-0.31 mg kg-1 dw; Cd: 1.97-2.11; Ni: 2.18-3.20 and Pb: 3.1-3.8), although the levels obtained in most of the sites fitted within moderate or low categories, and they could be considered as baseline concentrations. However, few sites considered little-influenced by human activities, at present, showed high concentrations of Cd, Ni and Pb, which constitute new areas of concern. Overall, the use of active biomonitoring (ABM) approach allowed to investigate trace metal contamination in order to support policy makers in establishing regional strategies (particularly, with regard to the European Marine Strategy Directive). © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Sole M.,CSIC - Institute of Marine Sciences | Manzanera M.,Agencia Catalana de lAigua ACA | Bartolome A.,Institute Diagnostico Ambiental y Estudios del Agua IDAeA CSIC | Tort L.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | Caixach J.,Institute Diagnostico Ambiental y Estudios del Agua IDAeA CSIC
Marine Pollution Bulletin | Year: 2013

Sediment polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorinated pesticides (OCls) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were measured during winter 2011 at seven sites on the Catalan coast (NW Mediterranean). Also at these sites, the benthic fish Solea solea and Solea senegalensis were fished for biomarker analysis. Chemical concentrations did not exceed the values considered safe by sediment quality guidelines (SQGs) for PAHs. However, levels of DDT (94.5. ng/g d.w.) and PCBs (15.1. ng/g d.w.) were significant in the Ebre Delta. Nonspecific immune parameters in S. solea showed a positive correlation between lysozyme activity in plasma and PAH content in sediment (r= 0.982, p<. 0.01) and the opposite trend occurred with the complement test (ACH50) (r= -0.837; p<. 0.05). Cell counts (monocytes, lymphocytes and granulocytes) were elevated at most PAH-affected sites. A high concentration of bile FACs (fluorescent aromatic compounds) occurred at the northern station. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Koenig S.,CSIC - Institute of Marine Sciences | Koenig S.,Institute Diagnostico Ambiental y Estudios del Agua IDAeA CSIC | Fernandez P.,Institute Diagnostico Ambiental y Estudios del Agua IDAeA CSIC | Sole M.,CSIC - Institute of Marine Sciences
Aquatic Toxicology | Year: 2012

Variations in cytochrome P450 enzyme (CYPs) distribution and function between animal groups could result in differential metabolism and elimination kinetics for certain contaminants. Although a number of studies have suggested that differences in polychlorobiphenyl (PCB) accumulation profiles between crustacea and fish might result from differential CYP patterns, the relationship between PCB bioaccumulation and CYP capacities has not been demonstrated in these organisms. In the present study we investigated the hepatic microsomal catalytic activities in three deep-sea fish species, Alepocephalus rostratus (Alepocephalidae), Coelorinchus mediterraneus (Macrouridae), and Lepidion lepidion (Moridae), and the decapod crustacean Aristeus antennatus (Decapoda), using six fluorescent CYP-mediated substrates, namely ER (7-ethoxyresorufin), PR (7-pentoxyresorufin), BR (7-benzyloxyresorufin), CEC (3-cyano-7-ethoxycoumarin), DBF (dibenzylfluorescein) and BFC (7-benzyloxy-4-trifluoromethylcoumarin). Furthermore, we related the metabolic activities to the accumulation patterns of 41 PCB congeners in the muscle of these organisms. The results indicated a marked difference in the presence and activities of CYP isoforms between fish and the crustacean A. antennatus. Liver microsomes of the three selected fish species were capable of metabolizing all six CYP-mediated substrates and enzymes were identified as primarily belonging to CYP1A and CYP3A subfamilies. In contrast, hepatopancreas microsomes from A. antennatus only showed activity for PR and DBF substrates, generally related to mammalian CYP2-like enzymes. Furthermore, a direct relationship between metabolic activities and PCB accumulation profiles could be established. Results revealed that A. antennatus accumulated significantly higher proportions of PCBs 28, 52, 118, 138, 158 and 169 than fish, which is in accordance with the previously observed lack of CYP1A-like biotransformation capacities. Moreover, A. antennatus exhibited lower levels of PCBs 87, 149, 153, 170, 180, 183, 194 and 206 indicating that this crustacean is able to metabolize congeners considered mammalian CYP2B inducers. Hence, the present findings highlight the role of CYP-mediated metabolism in the congener-specific accumulation of PCBs in aquatic organisms and stress the need to further investigate quantitative and qualitative differences in xenobiotic metabolism among animal groups. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

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