Dos Santos Lima D.,Federal University of Amapá |
Dos Santos Lima D.,Institute Desenvolvimento Sustentavel Mamiraua IDSM |
Marmontel M.,Institute Desenvolvimento Sustentavel Mamiraua IDSM |
Bernard E.,Federal University of Pernambuco
Mammalia | Year: 2014
After decades of banning commercial hunting, the population of the endangered giant river otter in South America is no larger than 5000 animals, with slightly increasing populations, and apparent reoccupation of parts of its historical distribution. In Brazil, which may hold the largest populations, the refinement of distributional data and the conduction of censuses in Amazonia were identified as essential for the conservation of the species. To confirm if the species was, in fact, reoccupying its historical area, we present here data collected between October 2004 and September 2008 in Amanã Reserve, Central Amazonia. A total of 18,181 km along 13 water bodies were surveyed in 465 days of fieldwork, resulting in 711 records. Animals presented a uniform occupation pattern, with expansion to new areas, no vacancy of previously used ones, and with frequent reuse of sites along the years. However, considering the number of records/km and sightings/km were almost constant between years, the local population may be experiencing just a slight increase, with animals probably expanding their home ranges. Although our study witnessed some population growth, giant river otters remained at low numbers during the survey, indicating that such population still have not reached its carrying capacity and require continuous attention. © 2014 by Walter de Gruyter Berlin/Boston.
Alves M.D.D.O.,Federal University of Pernambuco |
Schwamborn R.,Federal University of Pernambuco |
Borges J.C.G.,Fundacao Mamiferos Aquaticos FMA |
Borges J.C.G.,Federal Rural University of Pernambuco |
And 4 more authors.
Biological Conservation | Year: 2013
The objective of the present study was to analyze the distribution of manatees, dolphins and sea turtles off northeastern Brazil through aerial surveys, relating them to specific habitats and human activities, with emphasis on marine protected areas (MPAs). Surveys were conducted between January and April 2010 at 150m altitude and 140kmh-1, using two independent observers. Strip transects were flown in a zigzag pattern. Transects covered 4026km in more than 27 flight hours. A total of 36 sightings of manatees (Trichechus manatus manatus, 41 individuals), 28 of dolphins (Delphinidae, 78 individuals, including 10 Sotalia guianensis) and 256 of sea turtles (Cheloniidae, 286 individuals) were recorded. Manatees and sea turtles displayed solitary habits, while dolphins were commonly seen in groups. Manatees were positively correlated with sea turtles, probably due to their preference for sheltered shallow habitats with favorable conditions for foraging and resting. Furthermore, manatees showed a positive relationship with mangrove estuaries, and medium-sized coastal cities probably due to the intense urban development in many estuarine areas. Manatees and sea turtles were also positively correlated with boats, showing a severe threat for these species. Density of manatees was significantly higher within MPAs with preserved mangrove estuaries than in non-protected areas, while dolphins and sea turtles were observed in high densities MPAs with coral reefs. The elevated density of these organisms shows the vital importance of protecting and adequately managing unique ecosystems to ensure a sustainable future for the populations of severely threatened species. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.
Variation in the diet of a small characin according to the riparian zone coverage in an Atlantic Forest stream, northeastern Brazil [Variação na dieta de um pequeno Characidae de acordo com a cobertura da mata ripária em um riacho da Mata Atlântica, nordeste do Brasil]
Trindade M.E.J.,Institute Desenvolvimento Sustentavel Mamiraua IDSM |
Peressin A.,Federal University of São Carlos |
Cetra M.,Federal University of São Carlos |
Juca-Chagas R.,State University of Southwest Bahia
Acta Limnologica Brasiliensia | Year: 2013
Aim: in this study we present data from the diet of Astyanax vermilion which were used as a tool to compare two sites of streams with different vegetation cover in Ribeirão Limoeiro, Cachoeira River Basin, BA. Methods: Four samples were taken (March, June, September and December) using electrofishing as the collection method in two contiguous sites of the headwaters: stretch without riparian vegetation and with riparian vegetation. Results: The qualitative composition of the diet was analyzed by the method of frequency of occurrence. The allochthonous resources of vegetal origin made up the bulk of the diet in the stretch without riparian vegetation with a frequency of occurrence of 64%. In the section with riparian vegetation allochthonous resources of animal origin made up the bulk of the diet with a frequency of 62%, which emphasizes the importance of food items from the surrounding environment. The mean Shannon diversity index, calculated from the frequency of occurrence of food items was significantly different (p = 0.04) when comparing reach deforested (H'= 1.44) with reach forested (H'= 1.80). The average weight of stomachs in the deforested reach (WSD = 0.18g) was significantly higher than that of the forested reach (WSF = 0.14g). Conclusions: in the stretch with riparian vegetation, the food diversity was greater and the fish that are in the riparian stretch do not need as much food to satisfy their physiological needs. These results underscore the importance of the type of riparian vegetation as a food source for fish.
Da Silva C.R.,São Paulo Institute for Technological Research |
Da Silva C.R.,National Institute of Amazonian Research |
Martins A.C.M.,University of Brasilia |
De Castro I.J.,São Paulo Institute for Technological Research |
And 11 more authors.
Mammalia | Year: 2013
The Guiana Shield has large, preserved areas with high biological diversity. However, the knowledge of this biodiversity differs among the regions with the Brazilian portion poorly known compared to the French Guiana, Suriname, Guyana, and Venezuela. In the Amapá State, the information on mammals is very heterogeneous and represents a gap in the knowledge of the distribution and diversity of some groups. We compiled a list of the mammals of the Amapá based on the inventories, voucher specimens deposited in the collection Fauna of Amapá at Instituto de Pesquisas Científicas e Tecnológicas do Estado do Amapá, and previous published studies. We present a list of 181 mammal species. Chiroptera was the order with the highest number of species (88) followed by Rodentia (32). The list includes 17 new occurrences: 16 for Amapá (five marsupials, eight bats, one canid, one cetacea and one rodent) and one for Brazil (one rodent). This species list is the most complete taxonomic review for the Amapá, contributes to the knowledge of mammal diversity north of the Amazon River, and helps increase the precision of the species ranges in the Guianas and the eastern portion of the Amazon.
Villamarin F.,National Institute of Amazonian Research |
Marioni B.,Instituto Piagacu IPI |
Thorbjarnarson J.B.,Wildlife Conservation Society |
Nelson B.W.,National Institute of Amazonian Research |
And 2 more authors.
Biological Conservation | Year: 2011
Management of crocodilians is often based on source-sink dynamics, protecting breeding habitat and concentrating hunting in other areas. Nest distributions shed light on habitat use by breeding populations, which might be used as a basis for monitoring and management. The heterogeneous spatial distribution of Melanosuchus niger and Caiman crocodilus in Amazonia has been suggested to reflect past hunting pressure, often underestimating the natural ecological peculiarities of these species. Ground nest surveys combined with satellite imagery allowed us to evaluate whether nest-site use by M. niger and C. crocodilus reflects environmental constraints or is a result of hunting pressure. Our results indicate that there is little evidence that hunting pressure shapes nest-site use of these species in our study areas. M. niger nests mainly on the shores of stable, temporally impounded floodplain lakes isolated from the early stages of the annual rising water of main rivers. This behavior facilitates the identification of suitable nesting sites using moderate-resolution remote-sensing tools and should guide monitoring efforts and the protection of these areas. In contrast, C. crocodilus is a generalist species, able to nest hundreds of meters inside the forest far from permanent water. This makes the occurrence and distribution of nesting-sites unpredictable using Landsat images. Although nests of this species can be found around lakes where nests of M. niger also occur, the protection of these sites might help to preserve only a small portion of C. crocodilus nesting females. Thus, conservation strategies for C. crocodilus should probably be based on different approaches. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.
Menegassi Leoni J.,Institute Desenvolvimento Sustentavel Mamiraua IDSM |
Capelotto Costa F.R.,National Institute of Amazonian Research
Economic Botany | Year: 2013
Sustainable Use ofCalathea luteain Handicrafts: A Case Study from the Amanã Sustainable Development Reserve in the Brazilian Amazon. This study evaluated the local harvest and use of Calathea lutea, an herb used in basket weaving by residents of floodplain communities in the Amanã Sustainable Development Reserve (RDSA). C. lutea is associated with early successional stages of secondary vegetation or abandoned fields, often found alone in monospecific stands, called cauaçuzais. We describe the biology and ecology of C. lutea, including distribution, abundance, and resource availability using GIS and field inventory methods. We measured the area of each surveyed and georeferenced C. lutea stand and estimated the production and consumption of mature stalks in this area. With this information, we estimated the current status of the extractive use of this plant. C. lutea grows vigorously and flowers continuously with an average of 1,699 (+/- 754) clumps ha-1 in the stands. The total 41 georeferenced stands cover an area of 26 ha, with an estimated 44,200 clumps and 850,000 mature stalks. In 2006, approximately 15,000 mature stalks were used by artisans, about 2 % of the available stock. Therefore, the present stock meets artisanś demand with no evidence that the species is suffering from overharvesting. We also observed that the species inhibits plant succession due to its high capacity for dispersal, colonization, and permanence in secondary areas. It has, as a result, colonized about 50 % of high floodplain (várzea) areas formerly converted to agricultural fields in two of the four communities surveyed in this study. To establish more productive and healthy agroecosystems, we suggest enrichment of fallows with fruit and wood producing trees where C. lutea is less exploited. © 2013 The New York Botanical Garden.
Leoni J.M.,Institute Desenvolvimento Sustentavel Mamiraua IDSM |
da Fonseca S.F.,SDS |
Schongart J.,Max Planck Institute for Chemistry |
Schongart J.,National Institute of Amazonian Research
Forest Ecology and Management | Year: 2011
The long-term success of forest management depends primarily on the sustainability of timber production. In this study we analyse the population structure, tree age and wood increment of Malouetia tamaquarina (Aubl.) (Apocynaceae) to define a species-specific minimum logging diameter (MLD) and felling cycle by modelling volume growth. Contrary to other timber species in the nutrient-rich white-water floodplains forests (várzea), M. tamaquarina grows in the subcanopy of old-growth várzea forests. The wood of this species is utilized by local inhabitants in the floodplains for handicraft. In 35 plots of 25m×50m we measured diameter at breast height (DBH) and tree height of all trees taller than 150cm height. From 37 individuals with DBH>15cm we sampled two cores by increment borers to determine the wood density, tree age and diameter increment rates. In the management area of a várzea settlement with about 150ha recently harvested trees of M. tamaquarina have been recorded and DBH was measured. The species presents an inverse J-shaped diameter distribution indicating that the species is obviously regenerating in the old-growth forests. Tree-ring analysis indicates a mean age of 74.5 years for a DBH of 22.7cm for a studied population comprising 37 trees with maximum ages of up to 141 years for an individual with a DBH of 45.7cm. The tree species has low annual diameter increment rates (3.16±0.6mm) despite a low wood density (0.36±0.05gcm-3). The volume growth model indicates a MLD of 25cm and a felling cycle of 32.4 years. In the management area 35 trees with a mean DBH of 24cm were recorded, similar to the defined MLD. The abundance of trees above the MLD is 2.7treesha-1, or 405 trees, when extrapolated to the whole management area. Considering a felling cycle of 32.4 years (annual production unit of 4.63ha) this results in total of 12.5 harvestable trees, almost three times less than actually harvested. The actual practice of harvesting M. tamaquarina risks the overexploitation of this slow-growing species. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.
Freitas M.A.B.,Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi |
Vieira I.C.G.,Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi |
Albernaz A.L.K.M.,Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi |
Magalhaes J.L.L.,Institute Desenvolvimento Sustentavel Mamiraua IDSM |
Lees A.C.,Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi
Forest Ecology and Management | Year: 2015
Enrichment planting of açaí palms (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) has intensified in Amazonian floodplain forests following increases in both domestic and international demand for the açaí palm fruit, now marketed as a 'superfood'. The consequences of this expansion for regional biodiversity are poorly understood and herein we aim to evaluate how variation in açaí management intensity in várzea forests influences forest floristic composition and structure. We established 24 (10 × 100. m) sampling plots in eastern Amazonian forests managed for açaí production and 12 sample plots in unmanaged floodplain forests. We explored variation in community structure (richness, diversity and dominance) mediated by açaí density and habitat characteristics. We measured and identified 3168 trees belonging to 43 families, 119 genera, and 169 species. The current exploitation model practiced by Amazonian riverine communities, maintaining a mean density of 200. stem/ha, led to a loss of over 50% of tree species diversity and a 63% reduction in the number of pioneer species. This translated into a homogenization of the floristic community favoring species of economic interest. We underscore the need for multi-taxon studies to support management plans for economic-ecological zoning in Amazonian várzea forests managed for açaí to prevent broad-scale cryptic biodiversity loss. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.
New data on the ecology and geographic distribution of Saguinus inustus Schwarz, 1951 (Primates, Callitrichidae) [Novos dados sobre a ecologia e distribuição geográfica de Saguinus inustus Schwarz, 1951 (Primates, Callitrichidae)]
Valsecchi J.,Institute Desenvolvimento Sustentavel Mamiraua IDSM |
Vieira T.M.,Institute Desenvolvimento Sustentavel Mamiraua IDSM |
Silva Jr. J.S.,Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi MPEG |
Muniz I.C.M.,Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi MPEG |
Avelar A.A.,Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi MPEG
Brazilian Journal of Biology | Year: 2010
Saguinus inustus (Schwarz, 1951) is one of the neotropical primates least studied. The distribution of the species ranges from the north of the Solimões River, between the Negro and Japurá Rivers in Brazil, and Guayabero-Guaviare Rivers in Colombia. Nevertheless, due to the low number of specimens collected from the lower Japurá and lower Negro Rivers areas, the geographic distribution is so far poorly delineated. In this study, field data was composed of sightings and the collection of specimens during a survey of mammal diversity in the Amana Sustainable Development Reserve (ASDR). For this survey, two 40-day expeditions were carried out in 2004. The first one occurred during the flooded season in June and July, and the second was during the peak of the dry season in October. Direct sightings were made through hiking along transects, navigation along water channels with a 30-hp speedboat, and gliding along flooded trails in the forest. New records of S. inustus were made in 11 different localities in ASDR. The study has confirmed the presence of the species in the Amanã area, carrying out the first records of the species in flooded forest habitats.
Bernardon B.,Federal University of Mato Grosso |
Bernardon B.,Institute Desenvolvimento Sustentavel Mamiraua IDSM |
De Nobrega P.F.A.,Federal University of Mato Grosso |
De Pinho J.B.,Federal University of Mato Grosso
Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia | Year: 2014
Economic activities, such as extensive cattle ranching, may seriously threaten the types of forest most important to the Mato Grosso Antbird Cercomacra melanaria, and information on reproductive biology is essential for defining sound conservation and management strategies for the species. Here, we report on the reproductive biology of this species in the Brazilian Pantanal, focusing on attributes such as incubation and nestling periods, as well as characteristics of parental care. The hypothesis that nest occurrence is associated with canopy opening was also tested. Average nest height was 0.98 m; mean nest construction and egg incubation periods were 12.2 and 14 days, respectively; average nestling period was 9.4 days. Both males and females participated in nest construction, egg incubation, and feeding of nestlings. The canopy was consistently more open away from the nests (18.74%) than at nest sites (10.10%; p < 0.0001), indicating that C. melanaria selects nest sites with dense vegetation. © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Ornitologia. All rights reserved.