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Gamboa M.I.,CONICET | Navone G.T.,CONICET | Orden A.B.,Institute Desarrollo e Investigaciones Pediatricas | Torres M.F.,CONICET | And 4 more authors.
Acta Tropica | Year: 2011

We analyzed intestinal parasitic infections in children aged 1-12 years from a poor neighborhood in La Plata, Argentina, and determined the correlations with their nutritional status and socio-environmental conditions. We performed parasitological analyses with anal brushed technique (for Enterobius vermicularis eggs) and fecal samples, employing the techniques of Ritchie, Carles Barthelemy and Willis. The worm burdens of nematodes were estimated by means of Kato Katz technique. Low weight-for-age (underweight), height-for-age (stunting) and weight-for-height (wasting) were calculated based on the 5th centile of the WHO 2006 (children under 5) and CDC 2000 (older children and adolescents) growth references. We also analyzed samples of soil, water, and canine feces and surveyed other domestic and environmental data using structured questionnaires to each child's parents. To associate the parasitological, anthropometric and socio-environmental data, a categorical analysis of principal components (catPCA) was conducted. In the first axis of catPCA, the correlations among socio-environmental variables showed a gradient of " relative welfare" The eigenvectors showed the most influential variables in the analysis were promiscuity (0.0765), father's education (-0.741), crowding (0.727), wastewater disposal (-0.658), mother's education (-0.574), and flooding (-0.409). The 85% of children were parasitized and 79.6% polyparasitized. The 27.7% of children had deficit in some nutritional status indicator, being the stunting the most prevalent deficit (16.8%). There also found parasites in 42% of the dog feces, 53% of the soil samples, and non-pathogenic amoebae in the water samples. The SEV was mainly associated with geohelminths and stunting, especially among the poorest children. The study evidences that living conditions are variable within this population. Part of these variations could be linked to the differences in the extent to which parents are able to use their scant resources to influence their children's morbidity. Further studies need to be done from a qualitative approach. © 2009 Elsevier B.V.

Oyhenart E.E.,National University of La Plata | Lomaglio D.B.,National University of Catamarca | Dahinten S.L.V.,CONICET | Bejarano I.F.,National University of Jujuy | And 18 more authors.
Annals of Human Biology | Year: 2015

Background: The Argentinean population is characterized by ethnic, cultural and socio-economic diversity.Aim: To calculate the percentiles of weight-for-age (W/A) and height-for-age (H/A) of schoolchildren from Argentina employing the LMS method; and to compare the obtained percentiles with those of the international and national references.Subjects and methods: Anthropometric data of 18 698 students (8672 girls and 10 026 boys) of 3-13 years old were collected (2003-2008) from Buenos Aires, Catamarca, Chubut, Jujuy, La Pampa and Mendoza. Percentiles of W/A and H/A were obtained with the LMS method. Statistical and graphical comparisons were established with the WHO (international reference) and with that published by the Argentinean Paediatric Society (national reference).Results: Differences in W/A and H/A, regarding the references, were negative and greater at the highest percentiles and in most of the age groups. On average, the differences were greater for boys than girls and for national than international references.Conclusion: The distribution of weight and height of schoolchildren, coming from most regions of the country, differs from those of national and international references. It should be advisable to establish a new national reference based on internationally recognized methodological criteria that adequately reflect the biological and cultural diversity of the Argentinean populations. © 2014 © 2014 Informa UK Ltd.

Perez N.,Institute Desarrollo e Investigaciones Pediatricas | Iannicelli J.C.,Institute Desarrollo e Investigaciones Pediatricas | Girard-Bosch C.,Institute Desarrollo e Investigaciones Pediatricas | Gonzalez S.,CONICET | And 5 more authors.
European Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2010

Background: Antigen exposure is one of the major exogenous factors modulating human immunocompetence acquisition. Decline in family size and improvements in public health and hygiene in developed countries, may deprive the immune system of appropriate antigen input by diminishing infectious stimuli. Probiotics are a large group of microorganisms defined by their beneficial effects on human health and with stimulating effects on different functions of the immune system. Aim of the study: We conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to determine if probiotics maintain their immune-stimulating effects in a population of 162 children with a high index of natural exposure to microorganisms. Children were to ingest for at least 4 months one of two products, low-fat milk fermented by Streptococcus thermophilus (control product) or low-fat milk fermented by S. thermophilus and Lactobacillus casei, with Lactobacillus acidophilus, oligofructose and inulin added after the fermentation process (test product). According to their age, children were vaccinated with DTP-Hib vaccine or a 23-valent anti-pneumococcal vaccine. Results: Final analysis of results was done in 70 children in each group, showing that the rate of immunoglobulin and isoagglutinin acquisition was similar in both groups. There was no difference between groups in antibody levels neither before nor after vaccination. Days of fever and number of episodes of infection were not statistically different in either group. Conclusions: Supplementation of standard fermented milk with additional probiotics was not of benefit. The high natural rate of early microbial exposure in infants and children from a population of low socio-economic status living in a "less hygienic environment" may account for the absence of an additional immune-stimulating effect by supplementary probiotics. © 2009 Springer-Verlag.

Vericat A.,Institute Desarrollo e Investigaciones Pediatricas | Orden A.B.,Institute Desarrollo e Investigaciones Pediatricas
Ciencia e Saude Coletiva | Year: 2013

This article discusses some aspects of psychomotor development and its disorders, with special emphasis on psychomotor retardation. Diagnostic classifications of psychomotor problems, such as DSM-IV and CIE-10, are referred to and their advantages and disadvantages are analyzed. The concept of normality as a synonym for the statistical mean in the context of psychomotor disorders is also analyzed in order to consider its dynamic and variability, thereby avoiding the normality/pathology opposition, while some issues, such as the social and cultural aspects, are highlighted, making it possible to rethink the universality and relativity of psychomotor development.

Libster R.,Fundacion INFANT | Libster R.,Vanderbilt University | Bugna J.,Fundacion INFANT | Coviello S.,Fundacion INFANT | And 48 more authors.
New England Journal of Medicine | Year: 2010

BACKGROUND: While the Northern Hemisphere experiences the effects of the 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus, data from the recent influenza season in the Southern Hemisphere can provide important information on the burden of disease in children. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective case series involving children with acute infection of the lower respiratory tract or fever in whom 2009 H1N1 influenza was diagnosed on reverse-transcriptase polymerase-chain- reaction assay and who were admitted to one of six pediatric hospitals serving a catchment area of 1.2 million children. We compared rates of admission and death with those among age-matched children who had been infected with seasonal influenza strains in previous years. RESULTS: Between May and July 2009, a total of 251 children were hospitalized with 2009 H1N1 influenza. Rates of hospitalization were double those for seasonal influenza in 2008. Of the children who were hospitalized, 47 (19%) were admitted to an intensive care unit, 42 (17%) required mechanical ventilation, and 13 (5%) died. The overall rate of death was 1.1 per 100,000 children, as compared with 0.1 per 100,000 children for seasonal influenza in 2007. (No pediatric deaths associated with seasonal influenza were reported in 2008.) Most deaths were caused by refractory hypoxemia in infants under 1 year of age (death rate, 7.6 per 100,000). CONCLUSIONS: Pandemic 2009 H1N1 influenza was associated with pediatric death rates that were 10 times the rates for seasonal influenza in previous years. Copyright © 2009 Massachusetts Medical Society.

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