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Murviel-lès-Montpellier, France

Devaux C.,Institute Des Science Of Levolution Of Montpellier | Lande R.,Imperial College London | Porcher E.,Imperial College London | Porcher E.,CNRS Science Conservation Center

We analyze evolution of individual flowering phenologies by combining an ecological model of pollinator behavior with a genetic model of inbreeding depression for plant viability. The flowering phenology of a plant genotype determines its expected daily floral display which, together with pollinator behavior, governs the population rate of geitonogamous selfing (fertilization among flowers on the same plant). Pollinators select plant phenologies in two ways: they are more likely to visit plants displaying more flowers per day, and they influence geitonogamous selfing and consequent inbreeding depression via their abundance, foraging behavior, and pollen carry-over among flowers on a plant. Our model predicts two types of equilibria at stable intermediate selfing rates for a wide range of pollinator behaviors and pollen transfer parameters. Edge equilibria occur at maximal or minimal selfing rates and are constrained by pollinators. Internal equilibria occur between edge equilibria and are determined by a trade-off between pollinator attraction to large floral displays and avoidance of inbreeding depression due to selfing. We conclude that unavoidable geitonogamous selfing generated by pollinator behavior can contribute to the common occurrence of stable mixed mating in plants. © 2014 The Society for the Study of Evolution. Source

Papadopulos A.S.T.,Imperial College London | Kaye M.,University of Aberdeen | Devaux C.,Institute Des Science Of Levolution Of Montpellier | Hipperson H.,Imperial College London | And 6 more authors.
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences

It is now recognized that speciation can proceed even when divergent natural selection is opposed by gene flow. Understanding the extent towhich environmental gradients and geographical distance can limit gene flowwithin species can shed light on the relative roles of selection and dispersal limitation during the early stages of population divergence and speciation. On the remote Lord Howe Island (Australia), ecological speciation with gene flow is thought to have taken place in several plant genera. The aim of this study was to establish the contributions of isolation by environment (IBE) and isolation by community (IBC) to the genetic structure of 19 plant species, from a number of distantly related families, which have been subjected to similar environmental pressures over comparable time scales.We applied an individual-based, multivariate, model averaging approach to quantify IBE and IBC, while controlling for isolation by distance (IBD). Our analyses demonstrated that all species experienced some degree of ecologically driven isolation, whereas only 12 of 19 species were subjected to IBD. The prevalence of IBE within these plant species indicates that divergent selection in plants frequently produces local adaptation and supports hypotheses that ecological divergence can drive speciation in sympatry. © 2014 The Author. Source

Dufour C.M.-S.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Dufour C.M.-S.,Institute Des Science Of Levolution Of Montpellier | Louapre P.,French National Center for Scientific Research | van Baaren J.,French National Center for Scientific Research | And 2 more authors.

Optimal foraging models predict how an organism allocates its time and energy while foraging for aggregated resources. These models have been successfully applied to organisms such as predators looking for prey, female parasitoids looking for hosts, or herbivorous searching for food. In this study, information use and patch time allocation were investigated using male parasitoids looking for mates. The influence of the former presence of females in absence of mates and the occurrence of mating and other reproductive behaviours on the patch leaving tendency was investigated for the larval parasitoid Asobara tabida. Although males do not modify their patch residence time based on the number of females that visited the patch, they do show an increase in the patch residence time after mating a virgin female and performing courtship behaviour such as opening their wings. These results are in concordance with an incremental mechanism, as it has been described for females of the same species while foraging for hosts. The similarities between males and females of the same species, and the conditions under which such a patch-leaving decision rule is fitted are discussed. This is the first study describing an incremental effect of mating on patch residence time in males, thus suggesting that similar information use are probably driving different organisms foraging for resource, regardless of its nature. © 2012 Dufour et al. Source

Kafer J.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Talianova M.,Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic | Talianova M.,University of Regensburg | Bigot T.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Evolutionary Biology

Dioecy (i.e. having separate sexes) is a rather rare breeding system in flowering plants. Such rareness may result from a high probability of extinction in dioecious species because of less efficient dispersal and the costs of sexual selection, which are expected to harm dioecious species' survival on the long term. These handicaps should decrease the effective population size (Ne) of dioecious species, which in turn should reduce the efficacy of selection. Moreover, sexual selection in dioecious species is expected to specifically affect some genes, which will evolve under positive selection. The relative contribution of these effects is currently unknown and we tried to disentangle them by comparing sequence evolution between dioecious and non-dioecious species in the Silene genus (Caryophyllaceae), where dioecy has evolved at least twice. For the dioecious species in the section Melandrium, where dioecy is the oldest, we found a global reduction of purifying selection, while on some, male-biased genes, positive selection was found. For section Otites, where dioecy evolved more recently, we found no significant differences between dioecious and non-dioecious species. Our results are consistent with the view that dioecy is an evolutionary dead end in flowering plants, although other scenarios for explaining reduced Ne cannot be ruled out. Our results also show that contrasting forces act on the genomes of dioecious plants, and suggest that some time is required before the genome of such plants bears the footprints of dioecy. © 2012 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Source

Sen S.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Antoine P.-O.,Institute Des Science Of Levolution Of Montpellier | Varol B.,Ankara University | Ayyildiz T.,Ankara University | Sozeri K.,Ankara University

A recent fieldwork in the KaǧIzman-Tuzluca Basin in northeastern Turkey led us to the discovery of three vertebrate localities which yielded some limb bones of the giant rhino Paraceratherium, a crocodile tooth, and some small mammals, respectively. These discoveries allowed, for the first time to date some parts of the sedimentary units of this basin. This study also shows that the dispersal area of Paraceratherium is wider than it was known before. Eastern Turkey has several Cenozoic sedimentary basins formed during the collision of the Arabian and Eurasian plates. They are poorly documented for vertebrate paleontology. Consequently, the timing of tectonic activities, which led to the formation of the East Anatolian accretionary complex, is not constrained enough with a solid chronological framework. This study provides the first biostratigraphic evidences for the infill under the control of the compressive tectonic regime, which built the East Anatolian Plateau. © 2011 Springer-Verlag. Source

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