Institute Des Science Of Levolution Of Montpellier

Montpellier, France

Institute Des Science Of Levolution Of Montpellier

Montpellier, France
SEARCH FILTERS
Time filter
Source Type

Nunez-Rodriguez J.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development | Duponchelle F.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development | Cotrina-Doria M.,Institute Investigaciones Of La Amazonia Peruana | Renno J.-F.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development | And 8 more authors.
Journal of Applied Ichthyology | Year: 2015

The objectives of this study were the evaluation of the adaptation capabilities of re-stocked Arapaima gigas and their individual behavioural movements (males and females) to the wild environment compared to wild individuals still present in Lake Imiria, Peru and their survival rates. Using radio telemetry (external transmitters, 75 × 17 mm diameter, 35 g in air, ATS, Isanti, MN, USA), adaptation and behaviour of externally tagged, restocked cage-raised (124-143 cm TL, n = 14) and wild A. gigas (117-153 cm TL, n = 8), were monitored, focusing observations on individual behaviour and preferential localization in the lake. Home range size determined by minimum convex polygons (MCP95) or Kernel Density Estimation (KDE95) varied from 0.001 to around 4 km2, but the average KDE50 was relatively small (0.1 km2) in comparison to the tracked fish size (117-153 cm TL), indicating strong residency and presumably territoriality in this species. Also observed was that the habitat was concentrated along the shoreline of the lake and closely related to the presence of aquatic vegetation. Home range localization estimates and apparent travelled distance of wild and restocked fishes were very similar, thereby suggesting a rapid and good acclimation and survival of cultured re-stocked fish to a natural environment. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.


Kafer J.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Talianova M.,Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic | Talianova M.,University of Regensburg | Bigot T.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Evolutionary Biology | Year: 2013

Dioecy (i.e. having separate sexes) is a rather rare breeding system in flowering plants. Such rareness may result from a high probability of extinction in dioecious species because of less efficient dispersal and the costs of sexual selection, which are expected to harm dioecious species' survival on the long term. These handicaps should decrease the effective population size (Ne) of dioecious species, which in turn should reduce the efficacy of selection. Moreover, sexual selection in dioecious species is expected to specifically affect some genes, which will evolve under positive selection. The relative contribution of these effects is currently unknown and we tried to disentangle them by comparing sequence evolution between dioecious and non-dioecious species in the Silene genus (Caryophyllaceae), where dioecy has evolved at least twice. For the dioecious species in the section Melandrium, where dioecy is the oldest, we found a global reduction of purifying selection, while on some, male-biased genes, positive selection was found. For section Otites, where dioecy evolved more recently, we found no significant differences between dioecious and non-dioecious species. Our results are consistent with the view that dioecy is an evolutionary dead end in flowering plants, although other scenarios for explaining reduced Ne cannot be ruled out. Our results also show that contrasting forces act on the genomes of dioecious plants, and suggest that some time is required before the genome of such plants bears the footprints of dioecy. © 2012 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.


Hartfield M.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development | Hartfield M.,University of Toronto | Hartfield M.,University of Aarhus | Glemin S.,Institute Des Science Of Levolution Of Montpellier | Glemin S.,Uppsala University
Genetics | Year: 2016

In outcrossing populations, “Haldane’s sieve” states that recessive beneficial alleles are less likely to fix than dominant ones, because they are less exposed to selection when rare. In contrast, selfing organisms are not subject to Haldane’s sieve and are more likely to fix recessive types than outcrossers, as selfing rapidly creates homozygotes, increasing overall selection acting on mutations. However, longer homozygous tracts in selfers also reduce the ability of recombination to create new genotypes. It is unclear how these two effects influence overall adaptation rates in partially selfing organisms. Here, we calculate the fixation probability of beneficial alleles if there is an existing selective sweep in the population. We consider both the potential loss of the second beneficial mutation if it has a weaker advantage than the first one, and the possible replacement of the initial allele if the second mutant is fitter. Overall, loss of weaker adaptive alleles during a first selective sweep has a larger impact on preventing fixation of both mutations in highly selfing organisms. Furthermore, the presence of linked mutations has two opposing effects on Haldane’s sieve. First, recessive mutants are disproportionally likely to be lost in outcrossers, so it is likelier that dominant mutations will fix. Second, with elevated rates of adaptive mutation, selective interference annuls the advantage in selfing organisms of not suffering from Haldane’s sieve; outcrossing organisms are more able to fix weak beneficial mutations of any dominance value. Overall, weakened recombination effects can greatly limit adaptation in selfing organisms. © 2016 by the Genetics Society of America.


Papadopulos A.S.T.,Imperial College London | Kaye M.,University of Aberdeen | Devaux C.,Institute Des Science Of Levolution Of Montpellier | Hipperson H.,Imperial College London | And 6 more authors.
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences | Year: 2014

It is now recognized that speciation can proceed even when divergent natural selection is opposed by gene flow. Understanding the extent towhich environmental gradients and geographical distance can limit gene flowwithin species can shed light on the relative roles of selection and dispersal limitation during the early stages of population divergence and speciation. On the remote Lord Howe Island (Australia), ecological speciation with gene flow is thought to have taken place in several plant genera. The aim of this study was to establish the contributions of isolation by environment (IBE) and isolation by community (IBC) to the genetic structure of 19 plant species, from a number of distantly related families, which have been subjected to similar environmental pressures over comparable time scales.We applied an individual-based, multivariate, model averaging approach to quantify IBE and IBC, while controlling for isolation by distance (IBD). Our analyses demonstrated that all species experienced some degree of ecologically driven isolation, whereas only 12 of 19 species were subjected to IBD. The prevalence of IBE within these plant species indicates that divergent selection in plants frequently produces local adaptation and supports hypotheses that ecological divergence can drive speciation in sympatry. © 2014 The Author.


PubMed | Royal Botanic Gardens, Dalhousie University, University of Sheffield, Imperial College London and 3 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences | Year: 2014

It is now recognized that speciation can proceed even when divergent natural selection is opposed by gene flow. Understanding the extent to which environmental gradients and geographical distance can limit gene flow within species can shed light on the relative roles of selection and dispersal limitation during the early stages of population divergence and speciation. On the remote Lord Howe Island (Australia), ecological speciation with gene flow is thought to have taken place in several plant genera. The aim of this study was to establish the contributions of isolation by environment (IBE) and isolation by community (IBC) to the genetic structure of 19 plant species, from a number of distantly related families, which have been subjected to similar environmental pressures over comparable time scales. We applied an individual-based, multivariate, model averaging approach to quantify IBE and IBC, while controlling for isolation by distance (IBD). Our analyses demonstrated that all species experienced some degree of ecologically driven isolation, whereas only 12 of 19 species were subjected to IBD. The prevalence of IBE within these plant species indicates that divergent selection in plants frequently produces local adaptation and supports hypotheses that ecological divergence can drive speciation in sympatry.


Dufour C.M.-S.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Dufour C.M.-S.,Institute Des Science Of Levolution Of Montpellier | Louapre P.,French National Center for Scientific Research | van Baaren J.,French National Center for Scientific Research | And 2 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Optimal foraging models predict how an organism allocates its time and energy while foraging for aggregated resources. These models have been successfully applied to organisms such as predators looking for prey, female parasitoids looking for hosts, or herbivorous searching for food. In this study, information use and patch time allocation were investigated using male parasitoids looking for mates. The influence of the former presence of females in absence of mates and the occurrence of mating and other reproductive behaviours on the patch leaving tendency was investigated for the larval parasitoid Asobara tabida. Although males do not modify their patch residence time based on the number of females that visited the patch, they do show an increase in the patch residence time after mating a virgin female and performing courtship behaviour such as opening their wings. These results are in concordance with an incremental mechanism, as it has been described for females of the same species while foraging for hosts. The similarities between males and females of the same species, and the conditions under which such a patch-leaving decision rule is fitted are discussed. This is the first study describing an incremental effect of mating on patch residence time in males, thus suggesting that similar information use are probably driving different organisms foraging for resource, regardless of its nature. © 2012 Dufour et al.


Sen S.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Antoine P.-O.,Institute Des Science Of Levolution Of Montpellier | Varol B.,Ankara University | Ayyildiz T.,Ankara University | Sozeri K.,Ankara University
Naturwissenschaften | Year: 2011

A recent fieldwork in the KaǧIzman-Tuzluca Basin in northeastern Turkey led us to the discovery of three vertebrate localities which yielded some limb bones of the giant rhino Paraceratherium, a crocodile tooth, and some small mammals, respectively. These discoveries allowed, for the first time to date some parts of the sedimentary units of this basin. This study also shows that the dispersal area of Paraceratherium is wider than it was known before. Eastern Turkey has several Cenozoic sedimentary basins formed during the collision of the Arabian and Eurasian plates. They are poorly documented for vertebrate paleontology. Consequently, the timing of tectonic activities, which led to the formation of the East Anatolian accretionary complex, is not constrained enough with a solid chronological framework. This study provides the first biostratigraphic evidences for the infill under the control of the compressive tectonic regime, which built the East Anatolian Plateau. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.


Devaux C.,Institute Des Science Of Levolution Of Montpellier | Lande R.,Imperial College London | Porcher E.,Imperial College London | Porcher E.,CNRS Science Conservation Center
Evolution | Year: 2014

We analyze evolution of individual flowering phenologies by combining an ecological model of pollinator behavior with a genetic model of inbreeding depression for plant viability. The flowering phenology of a plant genotype determines its expected daily floral display which, together with pollinator behavior, governs the population rate of geitonogamous selfing (fertilization among flowers on the same plant). Pollinators select plant phenologies in two ways: they are more likely to visit plants displaying more flowers per day, and they influence geitonogamous selfing and consequent inbreeding depression via their abundance, foraging behavior, and pollen carry-over among flowers on a plant. Our model predicts two types of equilibria at stable intermediate selfing rates for a wide range of pollinator behaviors and pollen transfer parameters. Edge equilibria occur at maximal or minimal selfing rates and are constrained by pollinators. Internal equilibria occur between edge equilibria and are determined by a trade-off between pollinator attraction to large floral displays and avoidance of inbreeding depression due to selfing. We conclude that unavoidable geitonogamous selfing generated by pollinator behavior can contribute to the common occurrence of stable mixed mating in plants. © 2014 The Society for the Study of Evolution.


Jiguet F.,CNRS Science Conservation Center | Devictor V.,Institute Des Science Of Levolution Of Montpellier | Julliard R.,CNRS Science Conservation Center | Couvet D.,CNRS Science Conservation Center
Acta Oecologica | Year: 2012

Volunteer-based standardized monitoring of birds has been widely implemented in Europe and North America. In France, a breeding bird survey is running since 1989 and offers keen birdwatchers to count spring birds annually during 5 min exactly on 10 fix points within a randomly selected square. The first goal of such breeding bird surveys is to measure temporal trends in order to detect possible species declines. Combining annual indices of species sharing ecological affinities or a protected/red list status further provides biodiversity indicators for policy makers. Because the sampling effort is similar among sites, and because the initial selection of monitored sites is random, the temporal trends can be considered representative of national trends, and spatial comparisons of the obtained metrics are possible. Species abundance, community richness but also community specialization and average trophic level can be estimated for each site and each year and further related to the wide range of habitat and landscape characteristics and to agricultural or forestry practices. The large number of sites allows overcoming the opposition between adaptive and passive monitoring, making such schemes fitted to adaptive monitoring. This provides opportunities to determine which type of management or practices favour biodiversity. The comparison of population fate or community dynamics across a wide range of climates and temperatures, e.g. from southern to northern Europe, revealed how European birds are already affected by climate change. Bird communities are shifting northwards, but at a slower rate than temperatures, while bird populations have larger growth rates away from their hot thermal limit. Finally, such large-scale long-term monitoring data on a complete taxonomic group (Aves) is original and offers the opportunity to compare different measures of biological diversity, such as taxonomic, phylogenetic and functional diversity. Such a citizen science scheme is an efficient scientific tool (numerous papers published in international peer-reviewed journals) which is furthermore highly cost-effective, with a reduced permanent staff in a state insitution coordonating the network and analysing the data, while a similar survey conducted by state staff only would cost more than one million euros annually. The future development of bio-economic dynamic models for providing scenarios of sustainable farming and logging to maintain biodiversity will further highlight the necessity of such volunteer monitoring for policy makers and decision planning. Scientific and logistic partnerships could be proposed to help developing such a monitoring scheme in China. © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS.


PubMed | Institute Des Science Of Levolution Of Montpellier
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Evolution; international journal of organic evolution | Year: 2014

We analyze evolution of individual flowering phenologies by combining an ecological model of pollinator behavior with a genetic model of inbreeding depression for plant viability. The flowering phenology of a plant genotype determines its expected daily floral display which, together with pollinator behavior, governs the population rate of geitonogamous selfing (fertilization among flowers on the same plant). Pollinators select plant phenologies in two ways: they are more likely to visit plants displaying more flowers per day, and they influence geitonogamous selfing and consequent inbreeding depression via their abundance, foraging behavior, and pollen carry-over among flowers on a plant. Our model predicts two types of equilibria at stable intermediate selfing rates for a wide range of pollinator behaviors and pollen transfer parameters. Edge equilibria occur at maximal or minimal selfing rates and are constrained by pollinators. Internal equilibria occur between edge equilibria and are determined by a trade-off between pollinator attraction to large floral displays and avoidance of inbreeding depression due to selfing. We conclude that unavoidable geitonogamous selfing generated by pollinator behavior can contribute to the common occurrence of stable mixed mating in plants.

Loading Institute Des Science Of Levolution Of Montpellier collaborators
Loading Institute Des Science Of Levolution Of Montpellier collaborators