Institute Des Science Of La Vigne Et Du Vin Isvv

Villenave-d'Ornon, France

Institute Des Science Of La Vigne Et Du Vin Isvv

Villenave-d'Ornon, France

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Helwi P.,Institut Universitaire de France | Helwi P.,Institute Des Science Of La Vigne Et Du Vin Isvv | Helwi P.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Guillaumie S.,Institut Universitaire de France | And 15 more authors.
BMC Plant Biology | Year: 2016

Background: Volatile thiols largely contribute to the organoleptic characteristics and typicity of Sauvignon blanc wines. Among this family of odorous compounds, 3-sulfanylhexan-1-ol (3SH) and 4-methyl-4-sulfanylpentan-2-one (4MSP) have a major impact on wine flavor. These thiols are formed during alcoholic fermentation by the yeast from odorless, non-volatile precursors found in the berries and the must. The present study investigates the effects of vine nitrogen (N) status on 3SH and 4MSP content in Sauvignon blanc wine and on the glutathionylated and cysteinylated precursors of 3SH (Glut-3SH and Cys-3SH) in the berries and the must. This is paralleled by a RNA-seq analysis of gene expression in the berries. The impact of N supply on the expression of the glutathione-S-transferase 3 and 4 (VviGST3 and VviGST4) and the γ-glutamyltranspeptidase (VviGGT), considered as key genes in their biosynthesis, was also evaluated. Results: N supply (N100 treatment) increased the 3SH content in wine while no effect was noticed on 4MSP level. Furthermore, N supply increased Glut-3SH levels in grape berries at late berry ripening stages, and this effect was highly significant in must at harvest. No significant effect of N addition was noticed on Cys-3SH concentration. The transcript abundance of the glutathione-S-transferases VviGST3 and VviGST4 and the γ-glutamyltranspeptidase (VviGGT), were similar between the control and the N100 treatment. New candidate genes which might be implicated in the biosynthetic pathway of 3SH precursors were identified by whole transcriptome shotgun sequencing (RNA-seq). Conclusions: High vine N status has a positive effect on 3SH content in wine through an increase of Glut-3SH levels in grape berries and must. Candidate GSTs and glutathione-S-conjugates type transporters involved in this stimulation were identified by RNA-seq analysis. © 2016 The Author(s).


Helwi P.,Institut Universitaire de France | Helwi P.,Institute Des Science Of La Vigne Et Du Vin Isvv | Helwi P.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Thibon C.,CNRS Oenologie Research Unit | And 12 more authors.
Journal International des Sciences de la Vigne et du Vin | Year: 2015

Aim: To determine the effect of vine nitrogen status in interaction with grapevine variety and rootstock on vine development and on the synthesis of 3-sulfanylhexan-1-ol precursors (Glut-3SH and Cys-3SH) in grape berries produced in controlled conditions. © Vigne et Vin Publications Internationales (Bordeaux, France).


Helwi P.,Institut Universitaire de France | Helwi P.,Institute Des Science Of La Vigne Et Du Vin Isvv | Helwi P.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Habran A.,Institut Universitaire de France | And 14 more authors.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2015

Methoxypyrazines (MP) constitute a large family of compounds that contribute to the vegetative varietal aroma of many grapevine varieties and wines. The berry content in 2-methoxy-3-isobutylpyrazine (IBMP), a major MP reminiscent of green-pepper aroma, can be influenced by environmental factors or cultural practices such as water status or mineral nutrition. To date, no study has investigated a possible direct effect of nitrogen (N) on IBMP synthesis without possible interference from water status and vigor variations. In this study, only vine nitrogen status was significantly different among treatments. Water status was controlled during the season, and vine vigor was similar among treatments. IBMP level was maximal at bunch closure and decreased during the season. There was no significant effect of nitrogen nutrition on this metabolite. Moreover, the expression profiles of VvOMT3 and VvOMT4, key genes in the IBMP biosynthetic pathway, were similar between treatments. This result indicates that when an effect of N on IBMP was found in previous studies, it was likely mediated through the modification of bunch-zone microclimate, induced by the higher vigor of high N-status vines. © 2015 American Chemical Society.


Farace G.,Institute Des Science Of La Vigne Et Du Vin Isvv | Visconti S.,University of Rome Tor Vergata | Marchive C.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Aducci P.,University of Rome Tor Vergata | And 2 more authors.
Vitis - Journal of Grapevine Research | Year: 2015

In eukaryotic cells, 14-3-3 proteins constitute a family of conserved regulatory proteins which bind to a large number of phosphorylated partners. Although a great body of evidences accumulated in herbaceous species indicates that 14-3-3s play key roles in regulation of plant growth, information about function in tree plants is still very scarce. In this paper, we report the characterization of two novel 14-3-3s from grapevine (Vitis vinifera 'Cabernet Sauvignon') named VV1-CS and VV2-CS. The VV1-CS and VV2-CS cDNA were expressed in Escherichia coli and the recombinant proteins were shown to be functional proteins using plasma membrane H+-ATPase as target. Transcript analysis during grape development or under elicitor-induced stress revealed differential expression of the two 14-3-3 isoforms.


Castellarin S.D.,University of British Columbia | Castellarin S.D.,University of Udine | Gambetta G.A.,Institute Des Science Of La Vigne Et Du Vin Isvv | Wada H.,Japan National Agriculture and Food Research Organization | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Experimental Botany | Year: 2016

Along with sugar accumulation and colour development, softening is an important physiological change during the onset of ripening in fruits. In this work, we investigated the relationships among major events during softening in grape (Vitis vinifera L.) by quantifying elasticity in individual berries. In addition, we delayed softening and inhibited sugar accumulation using a mechanical growth-preventing treatment in order to identify processes that are sugar and/or growth dependent. Ripening processes commenced on various days after anthesis, but always at similarly low elasticity and turgor. Much of the softening occurred in the absence of other changes in berry physiology investigated here. Several genes encoding key cell wall-modifying enzymes were not up-regulated until softening was largely completed, suggesting softening may result primarily from decreases in turgor. Similarly, there was no decrease in solute potential, increase in sugar concentration, or colour development until elasticity and turgor were near minimum values, and these processes were inhibited when berry growth was prevented. Increases in abscisic acid occurred early during softening and in the absence of significant expression of the V. vinifera 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenases. However, these increases were coincident with decreases in the abscisic acid catabolite diphasic acid, indicating that initial increases in abscisic acid may result from decreases in catabolism and/or exogenous import. These data suggest that softening, decreases in turgor, and increases in abscisic acid represent some of the earliest events during the onset of ripening. Later, physical growth, further increases in abscisic acid, and the accumulation of sugar are integral for colour development. © 2015 The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.


PubMed | University of Nevada, Reno, University of Udine, Japan National Agriculture and Food Research Organization, University of California at Davis and Institute Des Science Of La Vigne Et Du Vin Isvv
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of experimental botany | Year: 2016

Along with sugar accumulation and colour development, softening is an important physiological change during the onset of ripening in fruits. In this work, we investigated the relationships among major events during softening in grape (Vitis vinifera L.) by quantifying elasticity in individual berries. In addition, we delayed softening and inhibited sugar accumulation using a mechanical growth-preventing treatment in order to identify processes that are sugar and/or growth dependent. Ripening processes commenced on various days after anthesis, but always at similarly low elasticity and turgor. Much of the softening occurred in the absence of other changes in berry physiology investigated here. Several genes encoding key cell wall-modifying enzymes were not up-regulated until softening was largely completed, suggesting softening may result primarily from decreases in turgor. Similarly, there was no decrease in solute potential, increase in sugar concentration, or colour development until elasticity and turgor were near minimum values, and these processes were inhibited when berry growth was prevented. Increases in abscisic acid occurred early during softening and in the absence of significant expression of the V. vinifera 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenases. However, these increases were coincident with decreases in the abscisic acid catabolite diphasic acid, indicating that initial increases in abscisic acid may result from decreases in catabolism and/or exogenous import. These data suggest that softening, decreases in turgor, and increases in abscisic acid represent some of the earliest events during the onset of ripening. Later, physical growth, further increases in abscisic acid, and the accumulation of sugar are integral for colour development.


PubMed | Institute Des Science Of La Vigne Et Du Vin Isvv, Institut Universitaire de France, University of Strasbourg and CNRS Oenologie Research Unit
Type: Journal Article | Journal: BMC plant biology | Year: 2016

Volatile thiols largely contribute to the organoleptic characteristics and typicity of Sauvignon blanc wines. Among this family of odorous compounds, 3-sulfanylhexan-1-ol (3SH) and 4-methyl-4-sulfanylpentan-2-one (4MSP) have a major impact on wine flavor. These thiols are formed during alcoholic fermentation by the yeast from odorless, non-volatile precursors found in the berries and the must. The present study investigates the effects of vine nitrogen (N) status on 3SH and 4MSP content in Sauvignon blanc wine and on the glutathionylated and cysteinylated precursors of 3SH (Glut-3SH and Cys-3SH) in the berries and the must. This is paralleled by a RNA-seq analysis of gene expression in the berries. The impact of N supply on the expression of the glutathione-S-transferase 3 and 4 (VviGST3 and VviGST4) and the -glutamyltranspeptidase (VviGGT), considered as key genes in their biosynthesis, was also evaluated.N supply (N100 treatment) increased the 3SH content in wine while no effect was noticed on 4MSP level. Furthermore, N supply increased Glut-3SH levels in grape berries at late berry ripening stages, and this effect was highly significant in must at harvest. No significant effect of N addition was noticed on Cys-3SH concentration. The transcript abundance of the glutathione-S-transferases VviGST3 and VviGST4 and the -glutamyltranspeptidase (VviGGT), were similar between the control and the N100 treatment. New candidate genes which might be implicated in the biosynthetic pathway of 3SH precursors were identified by whole transcriptome shotgun sequencing (RNA-seq).High vine N status has a positive effect on 3SH content in wine through an increase of Glut-3SH levels in grape berries and must. Candidate GSTs and glutathione-S-conjugates type transporters involved in this stimulation were identified by RNA-seq analysis.


Rattanakon S.,University of Nevada, Reno | Ghan R.,University of Nevada, Reno | Gambetta G.A.,Institute Des Science Of La Vigne Et Du Vin Isvv | Deluc L.G.,Oregon State University | And 2 more authors.
BMC Plant Biology | Year: 2016

Background: Abscisic acid (ABA) regulates various developmental processes and stress responses over both short (i.e. hours or days) and longer (i.e. months or seasons) time frames. To elucidate the transcriptional regulation of early responses of grapevine (Vitis vinifera) responding to ABA, different organs of grape (berries, shoot tips, leaves, roots and cell cultures) were treated with 10 μM (S)-(+)-ABA for 2 h. NimbleGen whole genome microarrays of Vitis vinifera were used to determine the effects of ABA on organ-specific mRNA expression patterns. Results: Transcriptomic analysis revealed 839 genes whose transcript abundances varied significantly in a specific organ in response to ABA treatment. No single gene exhibited the same changes in transcript abundance across all organs in response to ABA. The biochemical pathways affected by ABA were identified using the Cytoscape program with the BiNGO plug-in software. The results indicated that these 839 genes were involved in several biological processes such as flavonoid metabolism, response to reactive oxygen species, response to light, and response to temperature stimulus. ABA affected ion and water transporters, particularly in the root. The protein amino acid phosphorylation process was significantly overrepresented in shoot tips and roots treated with ABA. ABA affected mRNA abundance of genes (CYP707As, UGTs, and PP2Cs) associated with ABA degradation, conjugation, and the ABA signaling pathway. ABA also significantly affected the expression of several transcription factors (e.g. AP2/ERF, MYC/MYB, and bZIP/AREB). The greatest number of significantly differentially expressed genes was observed in the roots followed by cell cultures, leaves, berries, and shoot tips, respectively. Each organ had a unique set of gene responses to ABA. Conclusions: This study examined the short-term effects of ABA on different organs of grapevine. The responses of each organ were unique indicating that ABA signaling varies with the organ. Understanding the ABA responses in an organ-specific manner is crucial to fully understand hormone action and plant responses to water deficit. © 2016 Rattanakon et al.


PubMed | Institute Des Science Of La Vigne Et Du Vin Isvv, Institut Universitaire de France and CNRS Oenologie Research Unit
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of agricultural and food chemistry | Year: 2015

Methoxypyrazines (MP) constitute a large family of compounds that contribute to the vegetative varietal aroma of many grapevine varieties and wines. The berry content in 2-methoxy-3-isobutylpyrazine (IBMP), a major MP reminiscent of green-pepper aroma, can be influenced by environmental factors or cultural practices such as water status or mineral nutrition. To date, no study has investigated a possible direct effect of nitrogen (N) on IBMP synthesis without possible interference from water status and vigor variations. In this study, only vine nitrogen status was significantly different among treatments. Water status was controlled during the season, and vine vigor was similar among treatments. IBMP level was maximal at bunch closure and decreased during the season. There was no significant effect of nitrogen nutrition on this metabolite. Moreover, the expression profiles of VvOMT3 and VvOMT4, key genes in the IBMP biosynthetic pathway, were similar between treatments. This result indicates that when an effect of N on IBMP was found in previous studies, it was likely mediated through the modification of bunch-zone microclimate, induced by the higher vigor of high N-status vines.


PubMed | University of Nevada, Reno, Institute Des Science Of La Vigne Et Du Vin Isvv and Oregon State University
Type: | Journal: BMC plant biology | Year: 2016

Abscisic acid (ABA) regulates various developmental processes and stress responses over both short (i.e. hours or days) and longer (i.e. months or seasons) time frames. To elucidate the transcriptional regulation of early responses of grapevine (Vitis vinifera) responding to ABA, different organs of grape (berries, shoot tips, leaves, roots and cell cultures) were treated with 10M (S)-(+)-ABA for 2h. NimbleGen whole genome microarrays of Vitis vinifera were used to determine the effects of ABA on organ-specific mRNA expression patterns.Transcriptomic analysis revealed 839 genes whose transcript abundances varied significantly in a specific organ in response to ABA treatment. No single gene exhibited the same changes in transcript abundance across all organs in response to ABA. The biochemical pathways affected by ABA were identified using the Cytoscape program with the BiNGO plug-in software. The results indicated that these 839 genes were involved in several biological processes such as flavonoid metabolism, response to reactive oxygen species, response to light, and response to temperature stimulus. ABA affected ion and water transporters, particularly in the root. The protein amino acid phosphorylation process was significantly overrepresented in shoot tips and roots treated with ABA. ABA affected mRNA abundance of genes (CYP707As, UGTs, and PP2Cs) associated with ABA degradation, conjugation, and the ABA signaling pathway. ABA also significantly affected the expression of several transcription factors (e.g. AP2/ERF, MYC/MYB, and bZIP/AREB). The greatest number of significantly differentially expressed genes was observed in the roots followed by cell cultures, leaves, berries, and shoot tips, respectively. Each organ had a unique set of gene responses to ABA.This study examined the short-term effects of ABA on different organs of grapevine. The responses of each organ were unique indicating that ABA signaling varies with the organ. Understanding the ABA responses in an organ-specific manner is crucial to fully understand hormone action and plant responses to water deficit.

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