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Rattanakon S.,University of Nevada, Reno | Ghan R.,University of Nevada, Reno | Gambetta G.A.,Institute Des Science Of La Vigne Et Du Vin Isvv | Deluc L.G.,Oregon State University | And 2 more authors.
BMC Plant Biology | Year: 2016

Background: Abscisic acid (ABA) regulates various developmental processes and stress responses over both short (i.e. hours or days) and longer (i.e. months or seasons) time frames. To elucidate the transcriptional regulation of early responses of grapevine (Vitis vinifera) responding to ABA, different organs of grape (berries, shoot tips, leaves, roots and cell cultures) were treated with 10 μM (S)-(+)-ABA for 2 h. NimbleGen whole genome microarrays of Vitis vinifera were used to determine the effects of ABA on organ-specific mRNA expression patterns. Results: Transcriptomic analysis revealed 839 genes whose transcript abundances varied significantly in a specific organ in response to ABA treatment. No single gene exhibited the same changes in transcript abundance across all organs in response to ABA. The biochemical pathways affected by ABA were identified using the Cytoscape program with the BiNGO plug-in software. The results indicated that these 839 genes were involved in several biological processes such as flavonoid metabolism, response to reactive oxygen species, response to light, and response to temperature stimulus. ABA affected ion and water transporters, particularly in the root. The protein amino acid phosphorylation process was significantly overrepresented in shoot tips and roots treated with ABA. ABA affected mRNA abundance of genes (CYP707As, UGTs, and PP2Cs) associated with ABA degradation, conjugation, and the ABA signaling pathway. ABA also significantly affected the expression of several transcription factors (e.g. AP2/ERF, MYC/MYB, and bZIP/AREB). The greatest number of significantly differentially expressed genes was observed in the roots followed by cell cultures, leaves, berries, and shoot tips, respectively. Each organ had a unique set of gene responses to ABA. Conclusions: This study examined the short-term effects of ABA on different organs of grapevine. The responses of each organ were unique indicating that ABA signaling varies with the organ. Understanding the ABA responses in an organ-specific manner is crucial to fully understand hormone action and plant responses to water deficit. © 2016 Rattanakon et al.

Castellarin S.D.,University of British Columbia | Castellarin S.D.,University of Udine | Gambetta G.A.,Institute Des Science Of La Vigne Et Du Vin Isvv | Wada H.,Japan National Agriculture and Food Research Organization | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Experimental Botany | Year: 2016

Along with sugar accumulation and colour development, softening is an important physiological change during the onset of ripening in fruits. In this work, we investigated the relationships among major events during softening in grape (Vitis vinifera L.) by quantifying elasticity in individual berries. In addition, we delayed softening and inhibited sugar accumulation using a mechanical growth-preventing treatment in order to identify processes that are sugar and/or growth dependent. Ripening processes commenced on various days after anthesis, but always at similarly low elasticity and turgor. Much of the softening occurred in the absence of other changes in berry physiology investigated here. Several genes encoding key cell wall-modifying enzymes were not up-regulated until softening was largely completed, suggesting softening may result primarily from decreases in turgor. Similarly, there was no decrease in solute potential, increase in sugar concentration, or colour development until elasticity and turgor were near minimum values, and these processes were inhibited when berry growth was prevented. Increases in abscisic acid occurred early during softening and in the absence of significant expression of the V. vinifera 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenases. However, these increases were coincident with decreases in the abscisic acid catabolite diphasic acid, indicating that initial increases in abscisic acid may result from decreases in catabolism and/or exogenous import. These data suggest that softening, decreases in turgor, and increases in abscisic acid represent some of the earliest events during the onset of ripening. Later, physical growth, further increases in abscisic acid, and the accumulation of sugar are integral for colour development. © 2015 The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

Farace G.,Institute Des Science Of La Vigne Et Du Vin Isvv | Visconti S.,University of Rome Tor Vergata | Marchive C.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Aducci P.,University of Rome Tor Vergata | And 2 more authors.
Vitis - Journal of Grapevine Research | Year: 2015

In eukaryotic cells, 14-3-3 proteins constitute a family of conserved regulatory proteins which bind to a large number of phosphorylated partners. Although a great body of evidences accumulated in herbaceous species indicates that 14-3-3s play key roles in regulation of plant growth, information about function in tree plants is still very scarce. In this paper, we report the characterization of two novel 14-3-3s from grapevine (Vitis vinifera 'Cabernet Sauvignon') named VV1-CS and VV2-CS. The VV1-CS and VV2-CS cDNA were expressed in Escherichia coli and the recombinant proteins were shown to be functional proteins using plasma membrane H+-ATPase as target. Transcript analysis during grape development or under elicitor-induced stress revealed differential expression of the two 14-3-3 isoforms.

Helwi P.,Institut Universitaire de France | Helwi P.,Institute Des Science Of La Vigne Et Du Vin Isvv | Helwi P.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Thibon C.,CNRS Oenologie Research Unit | And 12 more authors.
Journal International des Sciences de la Vigne et du Vin | Year: 2015

Aim: To determine the effect of vine nitrogen status in interaction with grapevine variety and rootstock on vine development and on the synthesis of 3-sulfanylhexan-1-ol precursors (Glut-3SH and Cys-3SH) in grape berries produced in controlled conditions. © Vigne et Vin Publications Internationales (Bordeaux, France).

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