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Sint-Kruis, Belgium

Kaulmann A.,Center De Recherche Public Gabriel Lippmann | Jonville M.-C.,Center De Recherche Public Gabriel Lippmann | Schneider Y.-J.,Institute Des Science Of La Vie | Hoffmann L.,Center De Recherche Public Gabriel Lippmann | Bohn T.,Center De Recherche Public Gabriel Lippmann
Food Chemistry

The consumption of phytochemicals such as carotenoids and polyphenols within whole fruits and vegetables has been associated with decreased incidence of various inflammation and oxidative stress related chronic diseases, which may be due to direct antioxidant effects, or indirect mechanisms such as affecting signal transduction/gene expression. Within the present study, we investigated the antioxidant composition of two major groups of vegetables and fruits, Brassica oleraceae and prunus spp., and estimated their contribution to antioxidant capacity. For this purpose, 17 plum and 27 Brassica varieties were collected in Luxembourg, and analysed for their individual polyphenol and carotenoid profile, vitamin C, dietary fibre, and minerals/trace elements, and their correlation with markers of antioxidant capacity (FRAP, ABTS, Folin-Ciocalteu). Total carotenoid and polyphenol content varied considerably between the different Brassica and plum varieties, with highest concentrations in the variety Kale (13.3 ± 0.58 mg/100 g wet weight) and Cherry plum (1.96 ± 0.28 mg/100 g) for carotenoids; and Kale (27.0 ± 0.91 mg/100 g) and Kirks plum (185 ± 14 mg/100 g) for polyphenols. In developed multiple linear-regression-models for Brassica, flavonoids, anthocyanins, lutein and vitamin C were found to be the best predictors of antioxidant capacity as assessed by FRAP (R2 = 0.832) and flavonoids, neochlorogenic acid and vitamin C as assessed by ABTS (R2 = 0.831); while for plums these were selenium, total sugars, chlorogenic acid and vitamin C (R2 = 0.853), and selenium, chlorogenic acid and flavonoids for FRAP (R2 = 0.711). When considering Brassica and plum consumption in Luxembourg, it is estimated that both contribute to an antioxidant intake equivalent to 26 and 6 mg per day of ascorbic acid equivalents, respectively. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Rogez H.,Federal University of Para | Pompeu D.R.,Para State University | Akwie S.N.T.,Federal University of Para | Larondelle Y.,Institute Des Science Of La Vie
Journal of Food Composition and Analysis

Anthocyanins are natural colorants with increasing interest. Euterpe oleracea fruits (EOF) (açai) are an interesting phenolic compounds source. They are extremely rich in two anthocyanins: cyanidin-3-glucoside and cyanidin-3-rutinoside. In this study, the anthocyanin content was evaluated in EOF during their ripening, allowing to characterize very important parameters for the post-harvest industry: their maximum accumulation rate, per day, (Δy), their maximum concentration in fruits (CMAX) and the corresponding maturity class (S). Samples of 12 racemes from three plantations were collected twice a month during their ripening process. The maturity class of EOF was recorded at each harvesting and their anthocyanin content was determined by an HPLC method after solvent extraction. Anthocyanin accumulation was described (p<0.05) by sigmoidal equations and Δy, CMAX and S values were determined. The Δy of EOF reached 35.63mgkg-1fruitsday-1, whereas CMAX reached 1443mgkg-1 fruits. On average, in the beginning of maturation, both anthocyanins were present in similar proportions. However, in the last maturity stages, cyanidin-3-glucoside became less abundant than cyanidin-3-rutinoside. On the basis of the data available on strawberries, grapes, pomegranates and lychees, it was possible to verify that the sigmoidal mathematical model of anthocyanin accumulation is transposable. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. Source

Yan S.-H.,Institute Des Science Of La Vie
Chinese Journal of Cancer

Cancer has been increasingly recognized as a global issue. This is especially true in countries like China, where cancer incidence has increased likely because of changes in environment and lifestyle. However, cancer is not a modern disease; early cases have been recorded in ancient medical books in the West and in China. Here, we provide a brief history of cancer, focusing on cancer of the breast, and review the etymology of ai, the Chinese character for cancer. Notable findings from both Western and Chinese traditional medicine are presented to give an overview of the most important, early contributors to our evolving understanding of human breast cancer. We also discuss the earliest historical documents to record patients with breast cancer. Source

Obese adipose tissues contain a higher proportion of inflamed macrophages than the normal adipose tissue. Adipocytes and macrophages are known to secrete pro-inflammatory markers that establish the systemic inflammation leading to metabolic complications. CCL-2 secreted by hypertrophied adipocytes attracts and activates macrophages in the adipose tissue. These cells, in turn, secrete TNFα and other pro-inflammatory molecules. The pomegranate husk extract and its phenolic constituents, punicalagin and ellagic acid, have exhibited an anti-inflammatory effect. In this study, we used an in vitro coculture system of 3T3-L1 murine adipocytes and RAW 264.7 macrophages to investigate the potential anti-inflammatory effects of these compounds on the vicious cycle between both cell types. The pomegranate husk extract presented an anti-inflammatory effect on the inflamed cells cultivated independently, as suggested by a decrease of (i) CCL-2 secretion by both cell types, (ii) adipocyte IL-6 expression and secretion, and (iii) macrophage TNFα secretion. Nevertheless and surprisingly, no anti-inflammatory effect was observed in coculture. Punicalagin, at the same concentration as that found in the pomegranate extract, had a more potent effect than the extract and in coculture; it reduced significantly the IL-6 secretion. Ellagic acid decreased TNFα and CCL-2 macrophage secretion, CCL-2 adipocyte secretion and, in coculture, it reduced IL-6 secretion and expression by adipocytes. These results indicate that the pomegranate husk extract has an anti-inflammatory action on adipocytes and macrophages but seems to be not able to reduce the inflammatory vicious cycle between both cells. Ellagitannin and punicalagin showed a better effect on inflammation suggesting that PHE will be a good candidate for more investigations. © 2014 The Royal Society of Chemistry. Source

Thiry C.,Coda Research | Ruttens A.,Coda Research | De Temmerman L.,Coda Research | Schneider Y.-J.,Institute Des Science Of La Vie | Pussemier L.,Coda Research
Food Chemistry

Selenium is an essential trace element that has raised interest because of its antioxidant and anticancer properties. The beneficial or toxic effect of Se is not only dose-dependent, but also relates to the chemical form of the element and its bioavailability. In this review, recently published data is summarised concerning both Se speciation and Se relative bioavailability in various foodstuffs. In addition, Se bioavailability is discussed in relation to the species-dependent metabolism in humans. In this way, the understanding of the potential health impact of Se species in commonly consumed food is aimed to be improved. It is strongly suggested on the basis of a higher retention and a lower toxicity, that organic Se (especially SeMet, the major species in food) is more recommendable than inorganic Se in the frame of a balanced diet. Further research is however desirable concerning the characterisation of unidentified Se species and determination of their health effects. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

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