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Janski N.,University of Strasbourg | Masoud K.,University of Strasbourg | Batzenschlager M.,University of Strasbourg | Herzog E.,University of Strasbourg | And 5 more authors.
Plant Cell | Year: 2012

Microtubules (MTs) are crucial for both the establishment of cellular polarity and the progression of all mitotic phases leading to karyokinesis and cytokinesis. MT organization and spindle formation rely on the activity of g-tubulin and associated proteins throughout the cell cycle. To date, the molecular mechanisms modulating γ-tubulin complex location remain largely unknown. In this work, two Arabidopsis thaliana proteins interacting with GAMMA-TUBULIN COMPLEX PROTEIN3 (GCP3), GCP3-INTERACTING PROTEIN1 (GIP1) and GIP2, have been characterized. Both GIP genes are ubiquitously expressed in all tissues analyzed. Immunolocalization studies combined with the expression of GIP-green fluorescent protein fusions have shown that GIPs colocalize with γ-tubulin, GCP3, and/or GCP4 and reorganize from the nucleus to the prospindle and the preprophase band in late G2. After nuclear envelope breakdown, they localize on spindle and phragmoplast MTs and on the reforming nuclear envelope of daughter cells. The gip1 gip2 double mutants exhibit severe growth defects and sterility. At the cellular level, they are characterized by MT misorganization and abnormal spindle polarity, resulting in ploidy defects. Altogether, our data show that during mitosis GIPs play a role in γ-tubulin complex localization, spindle stability and chromosomal segregation. © 2012 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved. Source

Majeran W.,Cornell University | Majeran W.,Institute des science du Vegetal | Friso G.,Cornell University | Ponnal L.,Cornell University | And 9 more authors.
Plant Cell | Year: 2010

C4 grasses, such as maize (Zea mays), have high photosynthetic efficiency through combined biochemical and structural adaptations.C4photosynthesis isestablishedalongthedevelopmental axis of the leaf blade, leading from an undifferentiated leaf base just above the ligule into highly specialized mesophyll cells (MCs) and bundle sheath cells (BSCs) at the tip. To resolve the kinetics ofmaize leafdevelopment and C4 differentiation and to obtain a systems-level understanding of maize leaf formation, the accumulation profiles of proteomes of the leaf and the isolated BSCs with their vascular bundle along the developmental gradient were determined using large-scale mass spectrometry. This was complemented by extensive qualitative and quantitative microscopy analysis of structural features (e.g., Kranz anatomy, plasmodesmata, cell wall, and organelles). More than 4300 proteins were identified and functionally annotated. Developmental protein accumulation profiles and hierarchical cluster analysis then determined the kinetics of organelle biogenesis, formation of cellular structures, metabolism, and coexpression patterns. Two main expression clusters were observed, each divided in subclusters, suggesting that a limited number of developmental regulatory networks organize concerted protein accumulation along the leaf gradient. The coexpression with BSC and MC markers provided strong candidates for further analysis of C4 specialization, in particular transporters and biogenesis factors. Based on the integrated information, we describe five developmental transitions that provide a conceptual and practical template for further analysis. Anonlineprotein expressionviewer is providedthrough the Plant Proteome Database. © 2010 American Society of Plant Biologists. Source

Heyno E.,CEA Saclay Nuclear Research Center | Heyno E.,Institute des science du Vegetal | Innocenti G.,University Paris - Sud | Lemaire S.D.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | And 2 more authors.
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences | Year: 2014

In photosynthetic organisms, sudden changes in light intensity perturb the photosynthetic electron flow and lead to an increased production of reactive oxygen species. At the same time, thioredoxins can sense the redox state of the chloroplast. According to our hypothesis, thioredoxins and related thiol reactive molecules downregulate the activity of H2O2-detoxifying enzymes, and thereby allow a transient oxidative burst that triggers the expression of H2O2 responsive genes. It has been shown recently that upon light stress, catalase activity was reversibly inhibited in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii in correlation with a transient increase in the level of H2O2. Here, it is shown that Arabidopsis thaliana mutants lacking the NADP-malate dehydrogenase have lost the reversible inactivation of catalase activity and the increase in H2O2 levels when exposed to high light. The mutants were slightly affected in growth and accumulated higher levels of NADPH in the chloroplast than the wild-type. We propose that the malate valve plays an essential role in the regulation of catalase activity and the accumulation of a H2O2 signal by transmitting the redox state of the chloroplast to other cell compartments. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved. Source

Bourcy M.,Institute des science du Vegetal
Plant signaling & behavior | Year: 2013

Medicago truncatula and Sinorhizobium meliloti form a symbiotic association resulting in the formation of nitrogen-fixing nodules. In this organ, symbiotic cells contain large numbers of bacteroids. Remarkably, this chronic infection does not trigger visible defense reactions. Despite the importance of this phenomenon for potential transfer of the symbiotic capacity to non-legume plants, the molecular mechanisms underlying this tolerance are not understood. We have characterized the dnf2 M. truncatula mutant blocked in the symbiotic process after bacterial infection of the symbiotic cells. Nodules formed by the mutant contain only few layers of infected cells. Furthermore, they exhibit defense-like reactions which clearly contrast with premature senescence frequently observed during inefficient symbioses. This atypical phenotype raises DNF2 as an exciting starting point to investigate the molecular basis of symbiotic repression of plant defenses. Source

Planamente S.,Institute des science du Vegetal | Planamente S.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Vigouroux A.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Mondy S.,Institute des science du Vegetal | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Biological Chemistry | Year: 2010

Bacterial periplasmic binding proteins (PBPs) and eukaryotic PBP-like domains (also called as Venus flytrap modules) of G-protein-coupled receptors are involved in extracellular GABA perception. We investigated the structural and functional basis of ligand specificity of the PBP Atu2422, which is implicated in virulence and transport of GABA in the plant pathogen Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Five high-resolution x-ray structures of Atu2422 liganded to GABA, Pro, Ala, and Val and of point mutant Atu2422-F77A liganded to Leu were determined. Structural analysis of the ligand-binding site revealed two essential residues, Phe77 and Tyr275, the implication of which in GABA signaling and virulence was confirmed using A. tumefaciens cells expressing corresponding Atu2422 mutants. Phe77 restricts ligand specificity to α-amino acids with a short lateral chain, which act as antagonists of GABA signaling in A. tumefaciens. Tyr275 specifically interacts with the GABA γ-amino group. Conservation of these two key residues in proteins phylogenetically related to Atu2422 brought to light a subfamily of PBPs in which all members could bind GABA and short α-amino acids. This work led to the identification of a fingerprint sequence and structural features for defining PBPs that bind GABA and its competitors and revealed their occurrence among host-interacting proteobacteria. © 2010 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc. Source

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