Time filter

Source Type

Manzi M.,Institute des science Agronomiques du Rwanda ISAR | Rutagwenda T.,British Petroleum | Kanuya N.,Sokoine University of Agriculture | Chatikobo P.,Polytechnic University of Mozambique
Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances | Year: 2011

Phenotypic characterization is a simple, non-invasive and inexpensive technology that can be utilized in mapping out an inventory of characters peculiar to a group of animals. A random sample of 487 non-descript village goats in Bugesera and Nyagatare districts were characterized according to their phenotypic characteristics. Three age categories (Based on dentition) were examined: milk, young and adults. Parameter assessed included face, back and rump profiles, presence of beards and toggles, horn, tail and ear lengths, coat color and pattern, presence of horns, live weight, heart girth, wither height, body and back lengths. Overall, 77.2% of goats sampled had a flat face while 22.8% had concave faces. About >98.4% had flat backs with 1.6% having a hollow back. All the goats in the study had a sloping rump. Only 6% had beards. About 13.5% had toggles averaging 3.4cm in length. Average horn length varied from 4.3 (±0.2) in the milk category to 8.0 (±0.1) in the mature goats. Horn diameter varied from 3.3 (±0.1) cm in the kids to 8.6 (±0.2) in adults, respectively. The mean tail length ranged from 9.6 (±0.1)42.0 (±0.1) for the same age categories. Average mean ear length ranged from 10.3 (±0.1)-l 1.5 (±0.09) (milk-adults). There was no significant difference (p>0.05) from one dentition category to another. The predominant coat color was the uniform multi-colored coat pattern. The mean live weight (kg) recorded were 13.1 (±3.3) (kids), 25.5 (±0.7) (young) and 33.3 (±0.5) (mature goats). Mean heart girth (cm) recorded was 54.4 (±0.5) (milk), 67.0 (±0.5) (young) and 74.0 (±0.4) (mature goats). The results show that goats in the study are predominantly not the East African Small type but rather are an improvement from the typical small East African goats. Implications of the present findings on goat breeding and productivity in Rwanda are discussed. © Medwell Journals, 2011. Source

Lyumugabe F.,University of Liege | Lyumugabe F.,National University of Rwanda | Gros J.,Catholic University of Louvain | Nzungize J.,Institute des science Agronomiques du Rwanda ISAR | And 2 more authors.
Biotechnology, Agronomy and Society and Environment | Year: 2012

Traditional sorghum beers are produced in several countries of Africa, but variations in the manufacturing process may occur depending on the geographic localization. These beers are very rich in calories, B-group vitamins including thiamine, folic acid, riboflavin and nicotinic acid, and essential amino acids such as lysine. However, the traditional sorghum beer is less attractive than Western beers because of its poorer hygienic quality, organoleptic variations and shorter shelf life. Research into the microbiological and biochemical characteristics of traditional sorghum beers as well as their technologies have been performed and documented in several African countries. This review aims to summarize the production processes and compositional characteristics of African traditional sorghum beers (ikigage, merissa, doro, dolo, pito, amgba and tchoukoutou). It also highlights the major differences between these traditional beers and barley malt beer, consumed worldwide, and suggests adaptations that could be made to improve the production process of traditional sorghum beer. Source

Butare L.,Centro Internacional Of Agricultura Tropical Ciat | Butare L.,University of Liege | Butare L.,Institute des science Agronomiques du Rwanda ISAR | Rao I.,Centro Internacional Of Agricultura Tropical Ciat | And 5 more authors.
Euphytica | Year: 2012

Aluminium (Al) toxicity limits common bean productivity in acid soil regions of the tropics. To improve Al resistance of common bean, Al-sensitive Phaseolus vulgaris (SER16) was crossed to Al-resistant P. coccineus (G35346-3Q) to create 94 F 5:6 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) of the pedigree SER16 × (SER16 × G35346-3Q). RILs were characterized for resistance to Al in a hydroponic system with 0 and 20 μ M Al in solution, and for shoot and root growth response to Al-toxic infertile acid soil in 75 cm long soil cylinder system using an oxisol of low Al- (12.5%; pH 4.6; fertilized) and high Al-saturation (77%; pH 4.1; unfertilized). G35346-3Q increased its taproot elongation rate by 3.5% between 24 and 48 h under 20 μM Al in solution, while the best RIL, Andean genotype ICA Quimbaya, and sensitive genotype VAX1 expressed reductions of 2.6, 12.5, and 69.5%, respectively. In the acid soil treatment the correlation between leaf area and total root length was highly significant under high Al saturation (r = 0.70 ***). Genotypes that were Al resistant in the hydroponic system were not necessarily tolerant to Al-toxic acid soil conditions based on shoot and root growth responses. Phenotypic evaluation using both systems allows the identification of genotypes with Al resistance combined with acid soil adaptation. Two genotypes (ALB88 and ALB91) emerged as lines with multiple traits. Results suggest that inheritance of Al resistance and acid soil tolerance in G35346-3Q is complex. Results from this work will be useful for identification of molecular markers for Al resistance in Phaseolus species and to improve acid soil adaptation in common bean. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. Source

Mutimura M.,Institute des science Agronomiques du Rwanda ISAR | Everson T.M.,University of KwaZulu - Natal
African Journal of Agricultural Research | Year: 2011

Livestock rearing in Rwanda, including the Bugesera and Nyamagabe districts is practised under stalling. This livestock farming is due to high human population resulting to land shortage where land is devoted more to cropping than to livestock production. In the Nyamagabe district, animal feed is constrained by low rainfall whereas in the Nyamagabe is constrained by the acidic soil with aluminium toxicity. The objective of this study was to determine feed resources and the availability of each feed resource that was used by farmers in the dry and wet seasons. Focus group discussions of 20 farmer representatives from each district were concerned. In each district, 20 farmers identified criteria to rank the identified feed resources. Individual farmers gave score to each identified feed resource according to farmers' criteria and the scores were considered as quantities measured. In the low rainfall district (Bugesera), four exotic, three indigenous fodder species and six crop residues were identified with preference scores ranging from zero to ten. Pennisetum purpureum (Napier grass) was given the highest scores ranged between six and eight because of its availability all year round. The native grass received a median score of five for its availability year round. In acidic soil area (Nyamagabe district), five exotic fodder species, five indigenous fodder species and 11 crop residues were identified. Napier grass and Commelina benghalensis were scored high with a median score of eight. The preference ranking confirmed that overall Napier grass was the major fodder crop used throughout the two districts followed by some indigenous species and crop residues. The availability of quality and quantity of feeds has shown a shortage of livestock feed resources in both districts and it requires a suitable forage species adapted to these areas of low rainfall and acidic soils. © 2011 Academic Journals. Source

Gaidashova S.V.,Institute des science Agronomiques du Rwanda ISAR | Gaidashova S.V.,Catholic University of Louvain | Van Asten P.J.A.,International Institute Of Tropical Agriculture | Dochez C.,International Institute Of Tropical Agriculture | And 2 more authors.
Nematology | Year: 2010

The effect of nematode root injuries on banana crop yield is very poorly known in higher parts of the East African highlands. This study assessed the impact of the root-lesion nematode, Pratylenchus goodeyi, on growth and yield of three banana cultivars (Musa spp. AAA-EA) in a field experiment involving nematicide and mulch applications at conditions of high altitude (about 1500 m). Plant growth, yield, root damage and nematode population densities were observed over three production cycles. Low to medium levels (≤50%) of root necrosis were associated with improved plant growth, whilst higher root necrosis (>50%) had no effect on plant growth. No significant reduction in bunch weight was associated with high root necrosis in any cycle and any of the three cultivars. Mulch significantly reduced root necrosis and P. goodeyi population densities. Bunch weight significantly increased in all mulched plots irrespective of root necrosis intensity. These results agree with those of earlier surveys in Rwanda that suggested little impact of P. goodeyi on banana yields. However, they challenge general perceptions and previous findings on the negative impact of root lesion nematodes on banana crop performance. © 2010 BRILL. Source

Discover hidden collaborations