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Niyongere C.,Institute des science Agronomiques du Burundi ISABU | Niyongere C.,Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology | Ateka E.,Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology | Losenge T.,Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology | And 2 more authors.
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2011

Banana bunchy top disease (BBTD), caused by the Banana bunchy top virus (BBTV), is reported as one of the most devastating diseases affecting banana and plantain cultivation worldwide. In order to identify putative sources of resistance, a cultivar screening trial comprising 40 Musa genotypes was established in March 2007 at the ISABU Mparambo research station in northwestern Burundi (893 m a.s.l.). Dessert bananas (AAA group), East African highland bananas (AAA, EAHB), plantains (AAB), cooking bananas (ABB), a tetraploid hybrid and wild diploid bananas (Musa acuminata and Musa balbisiana) were assessed. Ten plants per genotype were planted in a completely randomised design with border rows consisting of BBTV-infected 'Yangambi Km 5' (AAA) plants. Colonies of Pentalonia nigronervosa collected in BBTV-infected fields were released in the plot to enhance disease spread. Twenty-eight months after trial establishment, 32 genotypes have shown typical banana bunchy top symptoms. The first symptoms appeared 80 days after trial establishment on 'Yangambi Km 5'. Twenty-eight months after trial establishment, only eight genotypes [Musa balbisiana type Tani (BB), 'Kayinja' (ABB), 'FHIA-03' (AABB), 'Prata' (AAB), 'Gisandugu' (ABB), 'Pisang Awak' (ABB), 'Saba' (ABB) and 'Highgate' (AAA, Gros Michel subgroup)] have not manifested typical disease symptoms on any of the ten plants per genotype. Plant samples taken from these visibly healthy cultivars and analysed at a molecular level [at the Faculté Universitaire des Sciences Agronomiques de Gembloux (FUSAGx) in Belgium] indicated the presence of the virus in 'Pisang Awak', 'Saba' and 'Highgate'. These genotypes can be considered as BBTD tolerant. They could potentially act as a reservoir for the virus. Further diagnostic tests will be carried out on the five BBTV-free genotypes to confirm the extent of latent infections. Preliminary results indicate that genotypes with one or two B genomes tend to be more tolerant to BBTD. Source


Harahagazwe D.,Institute des science Agronomiques du Burundi ISABU | Ledent J.F.,Catholic University of Louvain | Rusuku G.,Institute Of Recherche Agronomique Et Zootechnique Iraz
Experimental Agriculture | Year: 2010

Two types of experiments on the potato crop (Solanum tuberosum) were conducted in the lowlands of Burundi, one on the use of rice straw mulch and another on planting densities. Contrary to what was expected, effects of mulch were evident on plant emergence only, tuber yield and components being unaffected. This might be due to the use of heat tolerant genotypes. At the same time, the yields obtained with four different plant population densities corresponding to four distances between rows did not differ significantly according to the ANOVA analysis. However, a very strong correlation was found between tuber yield and distance between rows. This trial allowed us to achieve a tuber yield never previously reached in the lowlands of Burundi: an average of 23.5 t ha -1 of fresh matter equivalent to 4.2 t ha -1 of dry matter was obtained. © 2010 Cambridge University Press. Source


Blomme G.,Bioversity International Uganda Office | Price N.,4 Craddock Drive | Coyne D.,Lambourn And Co. | Lepoint P.C.E.,British Petroleum | And 8 more authors.
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2013

Banana planting materials, healthy and diseased, are constantly moved between farms, villages, and ecological zones, and across political borders within Africa. Knowledge of the geographical distribution of pests and diseases is important for the implementation and strengthening of quarantine and other phytosanitary measures to prevent further within-country or trans-border spread. This review examines some of these issues. Within sub-Saharan Africa, key indigenous plant-parasitic nematodes attacking banana and plantain are Helicotylenchus multicinctus, Hoplolaimus pararobustus, and various species of Meloidogyne (root-knot nematodes) and Pratylenchus (lesion nematodes). Xanthomonas wilt of banana and enset (caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. musacearum), an indigenous African disease, originated in Ethiopia and since 2001, has steadily spread across East and Central Africa but has so far not been found outside the African continent. Source


Mbonankira J.E.,Catholic University of Louvain | Mbonankira J.E.,Institute des science Agronomiques du Burundi ISABU | Mbonankira J.E.,University of Burundi | Coq S.,Catholic University of Louvain | And 9 more authors.
Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science | Year: 2015

Silicon (Si) is the second most abundant element in the soil and can alleviate several abiotic stresses in many plant species. However, the mechanisms involved in alleviating ferrous iron (Fe2+) toxicity by Si are still largely unknown, and no study has investigated the role of Si on the Fe2+-induced oxidative stress and antioxidant system in rice. Four cultivars of Asian and African rice (Oryza sativa L. and Oryza glaberrima Steud) were grown for 4 weeks under hydroponic conditions with or without Fe2+ (250 mg Fe2+ L-1) and with or without Si (250 mg SiO2 L-1). The plants that were treated with Fe2+ suffered Fe2+ toxicity, and Si helped to alleviate the toxicity symptoms. The bronzing index and the Fe concentration in the foliar tissue increased in the presence of Fe2+ but decreased significantly with the application of 250 mg SiO2 L-1. The concentration of malonyldialdehyde, that is commonly used as an indicator of oxidative stress, increased in the foliar tissue in the presence of 250 mg Fe2+ L-1 in the nutrient solution. The application of 250 mg SiO2 L-1 in the plant nutrient solution treated with Fe2+ considerably limited the increase of malonyldialdehyde. However, no significant effect of Si application on the activities of antioxidant enzymes (catalase and ascorbate peroxidase) and non-enzymatic antioxidants (total ascorbate, reduced ascorbate, oxidized ascorbate, and the ratio of the reduced to oxidized forms) was observed in the rice plants that were grown in the presence of Fe2+. These results suggest that Si does not act directly on the antioxidant defense system of rice but reduces the plant Fe2+ concentration, which reduces the oxidative stress. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Source

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