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Jean A.,Institute Of Genomique Fonctionnelle | Jean A.,Universites Of Montpellier 1 And 2 | Jean A.,University of Nimes | Laurent L.,Institute Of Genomique Fonctionnelle | And 11 more authors.
Translational Psychiatry | Year: 2012

In mental diseases, the brain does not systematically adjust motor activity to feeding. Probably, the most outlined example is the association between hyperactivity and anorexia in Anorexia nervosa. The neural underpinnings of this 'paradox', however, are poorly elucidated. Although anorexia and hyperactivity prevail over self-preservation, both symptoms rarely exist independently, suggesting commonalities in neural pathways, most likely in the reward system. We previously discovered an addictive molecular facet of anorexia, involving production, in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), of the same transcripts stimulated in response to cocaine and amphetamine (CART) upon stimulation of the 5-HT 4 receptors (5-HTR4) or MDMA (ecstasy). Here, we tested whether this pathway predisposes not only to anorexia but also to hyperactivity. Following food restriction, mice are expected to overeat. However, selecting hyperactive and addiction-related animal models, we observed that mice lacking 5-HTR1B self-imposed food restriction after deprivation and still displayed anorexia and hyperactivity after ecstasy. Decryption of the mechanisms showed a gain-of-function of 5-HTR4 in the absence of 5-HTR 1B, associated with CART surplus in the NAc and not in other brain areas. NAc-5-HTR4 overexpression upregulated NAc-CART, provoked anorexia and hyperactivity. NAc-5-HTR4 knockdown or blockade reduced ecstasy-induced hyperactivity. Finally, NAc-CART knockdown suppressed hyperactivity upon stimulation of the NAc-5-HTR4. Additionally, inactivating NAc-5-HTR4 suppressed ecstasy's preference, strengthening the rewarding facet of anorexia. In conclusion, the NAc-5-HTR 4/CART pathway establishes a 'tight-junction' between anorexia and hyperactivity, suggesting the existence of a primary functional unit susceptible to limit overeating associated with resting following homeostasis rules. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited.


Ghossoub R.,Aix - Marseille University | Lembo F.,Aix - Marseille University | Rubio A.,Aix - Marseille University | Gaillard C.B.,Aix - Marseille University | And 8 more authors.
Nature Communications | Year: 2014

Exosomes are small vesicles that are secreted by cells and act as mediators of cell to cell communication. Because of their potential therapeutic significance, important efforts are being made towards characterizing exosomal contents. However, little is known about the mechanisms that govern exosome biogenesis. We have recently shown that the exosomal protein syntenin supports exosome production. Here we identify the small GTPase ADP ribosylation factor 6 (ARF6) and its effector phospholipase D2 (PLD2) as regulators of syntenin exosomes. ARF6 and PLD2 affect exosomes by controlling the budding of intraluminal vesicles (ILVs) into multivesicular bodies (MVBs). ARF6 also controls epidermal growth factor receptor degradation, suggesting a role in degradative MVBs. Yet ARF6 does not affect HIV-1 budding, excluding general effects on Endosomal Sorting Complexes Required for Transport. Our study highlights a novel pathway controlling ILV budding and exosome biogenesis and identifies an unexpected role for ARF6 in late endosomal trafficking. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.


Becker J.A.,University of Strasbourg | Becker J.A.,CNRS Physiology of Reproduction and Behaviors | Clesse D.,Institute des Neurosciences Cellulaires et Integratives | Spiegelhalter C.,University of Strasbourg | And 6 more authors.
Neuropsychopharmacology | Year: 2014

The etiology of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) remains largely unknown. Identifying vulnerability genes for autism represents a major challenge in the field and allows the development of animal models for translational research. Mice lacking the mu opioid receptor gene (Oprm1-/-) were recently proposed as a monogenic mouse model of autism, based on severe deficits in social behavior and communication skills. We confirm this hypothesis by showing that adult Oprm1-/- animals recapitulate core and multiple comorbid behavioral symptoms of autism and also display anatomical, neurochemical, and genetic landmarks of the disease. Chronic facilitation of mGluR4 signaling, which we identified as a novel pharmacological target in ASDs in these mice, was more efficient in alleviating behavioral deficits than the reference molecule risperidone. Altogether, our data provide first evidence that disrupted mu opioid receptor signaling is sufficient to trigger a comprehensive autistic syndrome, maybe through blunted social reward processes, and this mouse model opens promising avenues for therapeutic innovation. © 2014 American College of Neuropsychopharmacology. All rights reserved.


Petitjean H.,Institute des Neurosciences Cellulaires et Integratives | Petitjean H.,University of Strasbourg | Hugel S.,Institute des Neurosciences Cellulaires et Integratives | Barthas F.,Institute des Neurosciences Cellulaires et Integratives | And 7 more authors.
European Journal of Neuroscience | Year: 2014

Probenecid, an agonist of transient receptor vanilloid (TRPV) type 2, was used to evaluate the effects of TRPV2 activation on excitatory and inhibitory synaptic transmission in the dorsal horn (DH) of the rat spinal cord and on nociceptive reflexes induced by thermal heat and mechanical stimuli. The effects of probenecid were compared with those of capsaicin, a TRPV1 agonist. Calcium imaging experiments on rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and DH cultures indicated that functional TRPV2 and TRPV1 were expressed by essentially non-overlapping subpopulations of DRG neurons, but were absent from DH neurons and DH and DRG glial cells. Pretreatment of DRG cultures with small interfering RNAs against TRPV2 suppressed the responses to probenecid. Patch-clamp recordings from spinal cord slices showed that probenecid and capsaicin increased the frequencies of spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents (sEPSCs) and spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents in a subset of laminae III-V neurons. In contrast to capsaicin, probenecid failed to stimulate synaptic transmission in lamina II. Intrathecal or intraplantar injections of probenecid induced mechanical hyperalgesia/allodynia without affecting nociceptive heat responses. Capsaicin induced both mechanical hyperalgesia/allodynia and heat hyperalgesia. Activation of TRPV1 or TRPV2 in distinct sets of primary afferents increased the sEPSC frequencies in a largely common population of DH neurons in laminae III-V, and might underlie the development of mechanical hypersensitivity following probenecid or capsaicin treatment. However, only TRPV1-expressing afferents facilitated excitatory and/or inhibitory transmission in a subpopulation of lamina II neurons, and this phenomenon might be correlated with the induction of thermal heat hyperalgesia. © 2014 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


Bur I.M.,Institute des Neurosciences Cellulaires et Integratives | Zouaoui S.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Zouaoui S.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Zouaoui S.,Montpellier University | And 18 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2010

The mammalian circadian system is composed of multiple peripheral clocks that are synchronized by a central pacemaker in the suprachiasmatic nuclei of the hypothalamus. This system keeps track of the external world rhythms through entrainment by various time cues, such as the light-dark cycle and the feeding schedule. Alterations of photoperiod and meal time modulate the phase coupling between central and peripheral oscillators. In this study, we used real-time quantitative PCR to assess circadian clock gene expression in the liver and pituitary gland from mice raised under various photoperiods, or under a temporal restricted feeding protocol. Our results revealed unexpected differences between both organs. Whereas the liver oscillator always tracked meal time, the pituitary circadian clockwork showed an intermediate response, in between entrainment by the light regimen and the feeding-fasting rhythm. The same composite response was also observed in the pituitary gland from adrenalectomized mice under daytime restricted feeding, suggesting that circulating glucocorticoids do not inhibit full entrainment of the pituitary clockwork by meal time. Altogether our results reveal further aspects in the complexity of phase entrainment in the circadian system, and suggest that the pituitary may host oscillators able to integrate multiple time cues. © 2010 Bur et al.


PubMed | Institute des Neurosciences Cellulaires et Integratives
Type: | Journal: Progress in brain research | Year: 2012

Reproduction is a fundamental biological function ensuring individual descendant survival and species perpetuity. It is an energy-consuming process, and therefore, all underlying mechanisms have to work in synchrony to ensure reproductive success. Synchronization of reproductive activity with the best time of the day or the year is part of such adaptive processes. Recently, a neuropeptide named kisspeptin, synthesized in two discrete hypothalamic nuclei, the anteroventral periventricular nucleus and the arcuate nucleus, has been demonstrated to be a potent stimulator operating upstream of the gonadotropic axis. In this review, we show how kisspeptinergic neurons integrate daily and seasonal time cues to synchronize reproductive activity with the cycling environment.


PubMed | Institute des Neurosciences Cellulaires et Integratives
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of biological rhythms | Year: 2010

In seasonal breeders, reproduction is synchronized to seasons by day length via the pineal hormone melatonin. Recently, we have demonstrated that Kiss1, a key activator of the reproductive function, is down-regulated in sexually inactive hamsters maintained in inhibitory short days (SDs). In rodents, Kiss1 is expressed in the anteroventral periventricular nucleus (AVPV) and in the arcuate nucleus (ARC). Because both the duration of the nocturnal peak of melatonin and circulating sex steroid levels vary with photoperiod, the aim of this study was to determine whether melatonin and sex steroids differentially regulate Kiss1 expression in the ARC and the AVPV. Kiss1 expression was examined by in situ hybridization in both male and female hamsters kept in various experimental conditions, and we observed that 1) SD exposure markedly reduced Kiss1 expression in the ARC and AVPV of male and female hamsters as compared to LD animals, 2) sex steroid treatment in SD-adapted male and female hamsters increased the number of Kiss1 neurons in the AVPV but decreased it in the ARC, 3) melatonin administration to LD-adapted hamsters decreased Kiss1 mRNA level in both the AVPV and the ARC in intact animals, whereas in castrated hamsters, melatonin rapidly inhibited Kiss1 expression in the ARC but not in the AVPV, and 4) pinealectomy of male or female SD-adapted hamsters increased the number of Kiss1 neurons in the ARC but not in the AVPV. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that Kiss1 expression in the Syrian hamster hypothalamus is down-regulated in SD via different mechanisms. In the ARC, melatonin inhibits Kiss1 via a direct effect on the hypothalamus, and this effect is probably sex steroid dependent, whereas in the AVPV, the decrease in Kiss1 expression appears to be secondary to the melatonin-driven reduction of sex steroid levels. Taken together, our data support the hypothesis that ARC Kiss1 neurons mediate melatonin effects on the gonadotropic axis of the Syrian hamster.


Inquimbert P.,Institute des Neurosciences Cellulaires et Integratives
Journal of visualized experiments : JoVE | Year: 2013

Intraparenchymal injection of a viral vector enables conditional gene manipulation in distinct populations of neurons or particular regions of the central nervous system. We demonstrate a stereotaxic injection technique that allows targeted gene expression or silencing in the dorsal horn of the mouse spinal cord. The surgical procedure is brief. It requires laminectomy of a single vertebra, providing for quick recovery of the animal and unimpaired motility of the spine. Controlled injection of a small vector suspension volume at low speed and use of a microsyringe with beveled glass cannula minimize the tissue lesion. The local immune response to the vector depends on the intrinsic properties of the virus employed; in our experience, it is minor and short-lived when a recombinant adeno-associated virus is used. A reporter gene such as enhanced green fluorescent protein facilitates monitoring spatial distribution of the vector, and the efficacy and cellular specificity of the transfection.


PubMed | Institute des Neurosciences Cellulaires et Integratives
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience | Year: 2013

Endogenous acetylcholine (ACh) is a well-known modulator of nociceptive transmission in the spinal cord of rodents. It arises mainly from a sparse population of cholinergic interneurons located in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord. This population was thought to be absent from the spinal cord of monkey, what might suggest that spinal ACh would not be a relevant clinical target for pain therapy. In humans, however, pain responses can be modulated by spinal ACh, as evidenced by the increasingly used analgesic procedure (for postoperative and labor patients) consisting of the epidural injection of the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor neostigmine. The source and target of this ACh remain yet to be elucidated. In this study, we used an immunolabeling for choline acetyltransferase to demonstrate, for the first time, the presence of a plexus of cholinergic fibers in laminae II-III of the dorsal horn of the macaque monkey. Moreover, we show the presence of numerous cholinergic cell bodies within the same laminae and compared their density and morphological properties with those previously described in rodents. An electron microscopy analysis demonstrates that cholinergic boutons are presynaptic to dorsal horn neurons as well as to the terminals of sensory primary afferents, suggesting that they are likely to modulate incoming somatosensory information. Our data suggest that this newly identified dorsal horn cholinergic system in monkeys is the source of the ACh involved in the analgesic effects of epidural neostigmine and could be more specifically targeted for novel therapeutic strategies for pain management in humans.


PubMed | Institute des Neurosciences Cellulaires et Integratives
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Investigative ophthalmology & visual science | Year: 2011

Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a leading cause of blindness, yet pertinent animal models are uncommon. The sand rat (Psammomys obesus), exhibiting diet-induced metabolic syndrome, might constitute a relevant model.Adult P. obesus (n = 39) were maintained in captivity for 4 to 7 months and fed either vegetation-based diets (n = 13) or standard rat chow (n = 26). Although plant-fed animals exhibited uniform body weight and blood glucose levels over time, nearly 60% of rat chow-raised animals developed diabetes-like symptoms (test group). Animals were killed, and their eyes and vitreous were processed for immunochemistry.Compared with plant-fed animals, diabetic animals showed many abnormal vascular features, including vasodilation, tortuosity, and pericyte loss within the blood vessels, hyperproteinemia and elevated ratios of proangiogenic and antiangiogenic growth factors in the vitreous, and blood-retinal barrier breakdown. Furthermore, there were statistically significant decreases in retinal cell layer thicknesses and densities, accompanied by profound alterations in glia (downregulation of glutamine synthetase, glutamate-aspartate transporter, upregulation of glial fibrillar acidic protein) and many neurons (reduced expression of protein kinase C and C in bipolar cells, axonal degeneration in ganglion cells). Cone photoreceptors were particularly affected, with reduced expression of short- and mid-/long-wavelength opsins. Hypercaloric diet nondiabetic animals showed intermediate values.Simple dietary modulation of P. obesus induces a rapid and severe phenotype closely resembling human type 2 DR. This species presents a valuable novel experimental model for probing the neural (especially cone photoreceptor) pathogenic modifications that are difficult to study in humans and for screening therapeutic strategies.

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