Chartres-de-Bretagne, France
Chartres-de-Bretagne, France

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Lesne A.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | Lesne A.,Institute des Hautes Tudes Scientifiques | Becavin C.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Victor J.-M.,University Pierre and Marie Curie
Physical Biology | Year: 2012

Allostery is a key concept of molecular biology which refers to the control of an enzyme activity by an effector molecule binding the enzyme at another site rather than the active site (allos = other in Greek). We revisit here allostery in the context of chromatin and argue that allosteric principles underlie and explain the functional architecture required for spacetime coordination of gene expression at all scales from DNA to the whole chromosome. We further suggest that this functional architecture is provided by the chromatin fiber itself. The structural, mechanical and topological features of the chromatin fiber endow chromosomes with a tunable signal transduction from specific (or nonspecific) effectors to specific (or nonspecific) active sites. Mechanical constraints can travel along the fiber all the better since the fiber is more compact and regular, which speaks in favor of the actual existence of the (so-called 30 nm) chromatin fiber. Chromatin fiber allostery reconciles both the physical and biochemical approaches of chromatin. We illustrate this view with two supporting specific examples. Moreover, from a methodological point of view, we suggest that the notion of chromatin fiber allostery is particularly relevant for systemic approaches. Finally we discuss the evolutionary power of allostery in the context of chromatin and its relation to modularity. © 2012 IOP Publishing Ltd.

Smet-Nocca C.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Wieruszeski J.-M.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Leger H.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Leger H.,Institute des Hautes Tudes Scientifiques | And 4 more authors.
BMC Biochemistry | Year: 2011

Background: The human thymine-DNA glycosylase (TDG) plays a dual role in base excision repair of G:U/T mismatches and in transcription. Regulation of TDG activity by SUMO-1 conjugation was shown to act on both functions. Furthermore, TDG can interact with SUMO-1 in a non-covalent manner. Results: Using NMR spectroscopy we have determined distinct conformational changes in TDG upon either covalent sumoylation on lysine 330 or intermolecular SUMO-1 binding through a unique SUMO-binding motif (SBM) localized in the C-terminal region of TDG. The non-covalent SUMO-1 binding induces a conformational change of the TDG amino-terminal regulatory domain (RD). Such conformational dynamics do not exist with covalent SUMO-1 attachment and could potentially play a broader role in the regulation of TDG functions for instance during transcription. Both covalent and non-covalent processes activate TDG G:U repair similarly. Surprisingly, despite a dissociation of the SBM/SUMO-1 complex in presence of a DNA substrate, SUMO-1 preserves its ability to stimulate TDG activity indicating that the non-covalent interactions are not directly involved in the regulation of TDG activity. SUMO-1 instead acts, as demonstrated here, indirectly by competing with the regulatory domain of TDG for DNA binding. Conclusions: SUMO-1 increases the enzymatic turnover of TDG by overcoming the product-inhibition of TDG on apurinic sites. The mechanism involves a competitive DNA binding activity of SUMO-1 towards the regulatory domain of TDG. This mechanism might be a general feature of SUMO-1 regulation of other DNA-bound factors such as transcription regulatory proteins. © 2011 Smet-Nocca et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Eilebrecht S.,Institute des Hautes Tudes Scientifiques | Eilebrecht S.,Lille University of Science and Technology | Smet-Nocca C.,Lille University of Science and Technology | Wieruszeski J.-M.,French National Center for Scientific Research | And 2 more authors.
BMC Research Notes | Year: 2010

Background. Conjugation of small ubiquitin-related modifiers (SUMOs) is a frequent post-translational modification of proteins. SUMOs can also temporally associate with protein-targets via SUMO binding motifs (SBMs). Protein sumoylation has been identified as an important regulatory mechanism especially in the regulation of transcription and the maintenance of genome stability. The precise molecular mechanisms by which SUMO conjugation and association act are, however, not understood. Findings. Using NMR spectroscopy and protein-DNA cross-linking experiments, we demonstrate here that SUMO-1 can specifically interact with dsDNA in a sequence-independent fashion. We also show that SUMO-1 binding to DNA can compete with other protein-DNA interactions at the example of the regulatory domain of Thymine-DNA Glycosylase and, based on these competition studies, estimate the DNA binding constant of SUMO1 in the range 1 mM. Conclusion. This finding provides an important insight into how SUMO-1 might exert its activity. SUMO-1 might play a general role in destabilizing DNA bound protein complexes thereby operating in a bottle-opener way of fashion, explaining its pivotal role in regulating the activity of many central transcription and DNA repair complexes. © 2010 Benecke et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

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