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Rocha M.,University of Valencia | Herance R.,Institute dAlta Tecnologia PRBB | Rovira S.,University of Valencia | Hernandez-Mijares A.,University of Valencia | Victor V.M.,University of Valencia
Infectious Disorders - Drug Targets

Sepsis and septic shock are the major causes of death in intensive care units. Oxidative damage to mitochondria is involved in the development of organ dysfunction associated with sepsis. This syndrome is caused by an excessive defensive and inflammatory response characterised by a massive increases of reactive oxygen species (ROS), nitric oxide (NO) and inflammatory cytokines. Under normal circumstances, complex interacting antioxidant defense systems control oxidative stress within mitochondria The consequences of sepsis is a systemic damage to the vascular endothelium, impaired tissue and a compromised whole body respiration, antioxidant depletion and mitochondrial respiratory dysfunction with diminished levels of ATP and O 2 consumption. In general, ROS are essential to the functions of cells and particularly immune cells, but adequate levels of antioxidant defenses are required to protect against the harmful effects of excessive ROS production. This review considers the process of sepsis from a mitochondrial perspective, discussing strategies for the targeted delivery of antioxidants to mitochondria. We will provide a summary of the following areas: the cellular metabolism of ROS and its role in pathophysiological processes such as sepsis; currently available antioxidants and possible reasons for their efficacy and inefficacy in ameliorating oxidative stress-mediated diseases; and recent developments in mitochondria-targeted antioxidants and the future implications for such approaches in patients. © 2012 Bentham Science Publishers. Source

Martin R.,Polytechnic University of Valencia | Alvaro M.,Polytechnic University of Valencia | Herance J.R.,Institute dAlta Tecnologia PRBB | Garcia H.,Polytechnic University of Valencia
ACS Nano

When raw diamond nanoparticles (Dnp, 7 nm average particle size) obtained from detonation are submitted to harsh Fenton-treatment, the resulting material becomes free of amorphous soot matter and the process maintains the crystallinity, reduces the particle size (4 nm average particle size), increases the surface OH population, and increases water solubility. All these changes are beneficial for subsequent Dnp covalent functionalization and for the ability of Dnp to cross cell membranes. Fenton-treated Dnps have been functionalized with thionine and the resulting sample has been observed in HeLa cell nuclei. A triethylammonium-functionalized Dnp pairs electrostatically with a plasmid having the green fluorescent protein gene and acts as gene delivery system permitting the plasmid to cross HeLa cell membrane, something that does not occur for the plasmid alone without assistance of polycationic Dnp. © 2010 American Chemical Society. Source

Fontenelle L.F.,University of Melbourne | Fontenelle L.F.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | Harrison B.J.,University of Melbourne | Pujol J.,Institute dAlta Tecnologia PRBB | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Psychiatry and Neuroscience

Background: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is associated with a range of emotional abnormalities linked to its defining symptoms, comorbid illnesses and cognitive deficits. The aim of this preliminary study was to examine functional changes in the brain that are associated with experimentally induced sad mood in patients with OCD compared with healthy controls in a frontolimbic circuit relevant to both OCD and mood regulation. Methods: Participants underwent a validated sad mood induction procedure during functional magnetic resonance imaging. Analyses focused on mapping changes in the functional connectivity of the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) within and between the 2 groups in response to successfully induced sadness. Results: We enrolled 11 patients with OCD and 10 age-, sex- and IQ-matched controls in our study. Unlike controls, patients with OCD did not demonstrate predicted increases in functional connectivity between the subgenual ACC and other frontal regions during mood induction. Instead, patients demonstrated heightened connectivity between the subgenual ACC and ventral caudate/nucleus accumbens region and the hypothalamus. Limitations: Our study included a small, partially medicated patient cohort that precluded our ability to investigate sex or drug effects, evaluate behavioural differences between the groups and perform a whole-brain analysis. Conclusion: The ventral striatum and ventral frontal cortex were distinctly and differentially modulated in their connectivity with the subgenual ACC during the experience of sad mood in patients with OCD. These results suggest that, in patients with OCD, induced sadness appears to have provoked a primary subcortical component of the hypothesized "OCD circuit," which may offer insights into why OCD symptoms tend to develop and worsen during disturbed emotional states. © 2012 Canadian Medical Association. Source

Garcia-Bou R.,University of Valencia | Rocha M.,University of Valencia | Apostolova N.,University of Valencia | Herance R.,Institute dAlta Tecnologia PRBB | And 2 more authors.
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Bioenergetics

The medical use of nitroglycerin (GTN) is limited by patient tolerance. The present study evaluated the role of mitochondrial Complex I in GTN biotransformation and the therapeutic effect of mitochondrial antioxidants. The development of GTN tolerance (in rat and human vessels) produced a decrease in mitochondrial O2 consumption. Co-incubation with the mitochondria-targeted antioxidant mitoquinone (MQ, 10- 6 mol/L) or with glutathione ester (GEE, 10- 4 mol/L) blocked GTN tolerance and the effects of GTN on mitochondrial respiration and aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH-2) activity. Biotransformation of GTN depended on the mitochondria being functionally active, particularly mitochondrial Complex I. Tolerance induced mitochondrial ROS production and oxidative stress, though these effects were not detected in HUVECρ0 cells or Complex I mutant cells. Experiments performed to evaluate Complex I-dependent respiration demonstrated that its inhibition by GTN was prevented by the antioxidants in control samples. These results point to a key role for mitochondrial Complex I in the adequate functioning of ALDH-2. In addition, we have identified mitochondrial Complex I as one of the targets at which the initial oxidative stress responsible for GTN tolerance takes place. Our data also suggest a role for mitochondrial- antioxidants as therapeutic tools in the control of the tolerance that accompanies chronic nitrate use. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source

Batalla A.,Institute of Neurosciences | Batalla A.,University of Barcelona | Batalla A.,University of Melbourne | Bhattacharyya S.,Kings College London | And 11 more authors.

Background: The growing concern about cannabis use, the most commonly used illicit drug worldwide, has led to a significant increase in the number of human studies using neuroimaging techniques to determine the effect of cannabis on brain structure and function. We conducted a systematic review to assess the evidence of the impact of chronic cannabis use on brain structure and function in adults and adolescents. Methods: Papers published until August 2012 were included from EMBASE, Medline, PubMed and LILACS databases following a comprehensive search strategy and pre-determined set of criteria for article selection. Only neuroimaging studies involving chronic cannabis users with a matched control group were considered. Results: One hundred and forty-two studies were identified, of which 43 met the established criteria. Eight studies were in adolescent population. Neuroimaging studies provide evidence of morphological brain alterations in both population groups, particularly in the medial temporal and frontal cortices, as well as the cerebellum. These effects may be related to the amount of cannabis exposure. Functional neuroimaging studies suggest different patterns of resting global and brain activity during the performance of several cognitive tasks both in adolescents and adults, which may indicate compensatory effects in response to chronic cannabis exposure. Limitations: However, the results pointed out methodological limitations of the work conducted to date and considerable heterogeneity in the findings. Conclusion: Chronic cannabis use may alter brain structure and function in adult and adolescent population. Further studies should consider the use of convergent methodology, prospective large samples involving adolescent to adulthood subjects, and data-sharing initiatives. © 2013 Batalla et al. Source

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