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Scheepmaker R.A.,SRON Netherlands Institute for Space Research | Frankenberg C.,Jet Propulsion Laboratory | Galli A.,SRON Netherlands Institute for Space Research | Butz A.,Karlsruhe Institute of Technology | And 7 more authors.
Atmospheric Measurement Techniques | Year: 2013

The relative abundance of the heavy water isotopologue HDO provides a deeper insight into the atmospheric hydrological cycle. The SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CartograpHY (SCIAMACHY) allows for global retrievals of the ratio HDO/H2O in the 2.3 micron wavelength range. However, the spectroscopy of water lines in this region remains a large source of uncertainty for these retrievals. We therefore evaluate and improve the water spectroscopy in the range 4174-4300 cm-1 and test if this reduces systematic uncertainties in the SCIAMACHY retrievals of HDO/H 2O. We use a laboratory spectrum of water vapour to fit line intensity, air broadening and wavelength shift parameters. The improved spectroscopy is tested on a series of ground-based high resolution FTS spectra as well as on SCIAMACHY retrievals of H2O and the ratio HDO/H 2O. We find that the improved spectroscopy leads to lower residuals in the FTS spectra compared to HITRAN 2008 and Jenouvrier et al. (2007) spectroscopy, and the retrievals become more robust against changes in the retrieval window. For both the FTS and SCIAMACHY measurements, the retrieved total H2O columns decrease by 2-4% and we find a negative shift of the HDO/H2O ratio, which for SCIAMACHY is partly compensated by changes in the retrieval setup and calibration software. The updated SCIAMACHY HDO/H2O product shows somewhat steeper latitudinal and temporal gradients and a steeper Rayleigh distillation curve, strengthening previous conclusions that current isotope-enabled general circulation models underestimate the variability in the near-surface HDO/H2O ratio. © Author(s) 2013. Source


Adams C.,University of Toronto | Strong K.,University of Toronto | Batchelor R.L.,University of Toronto | Batchelor R.L.,U.S. National Center for Atmospheric Research | And 33 more authors.
Atmospheric Measurement Techniques | Year: 2012

The Optical Spectrograph and Infra-Red Imager System (OSIRIS) and the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE) have been taking measurements from space since 2001 and 2003, respectively. This paper presents intercomparisons between ozone and NO 2 measured by the ACE and OSIRIS satellite instruments and by ground-based instruments at the Polar Environment Atmospheric Research Laboratory (PEARL), which is located at Eureka, Canada (80°N, 86°W) and is operated by the Canadian Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Change (CANDAC). The ground-based instruments included in this study are four zenith-sky differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) instruments, one Bruker Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR) and four Brewer spectrophotometers. Ozone total columns measured by the DOAS instruments were retrieved using new Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC) guidelines and agree to within 3.2%. The DOAS ozone columns agree with the Brewer spectrophotometers with mean relative differences that are smaller than 1.5%. This suggests that for these instruments the new NDACC data guidelines were successful in producing a homogenous and accurate ozone dataset at 80°N. Satellite 14-52 km ozone and 17-40 km NO 2 partial columns within 500 km of PEARL were calculated for ACE-FTS Version 2.2 (v2.2) plus updates, ACE-FTS v3.0, ACE-MAESTRO (Measurements of Aerosol Extinction in the Stratosphere and Troposphere Retrieved by Occultation) v1.2 and OSIRIS SaskMART v5.0x ozone and Optimal Estimation v3.0 NO 2 data products. The new ACE-FTS v3.0 and the validated ACE-FTS v2.2 partial columns are nearly identical, with mean relative differences of 0.0 ± 0.2% and -0.2 ± 0.1% for v2.2 minus v3.0 ozone and NO 2, respectively. Ozone columns were constructed from 14-52 km satellite and 0-14 km ozonesonde partial columns and compared with the ground-based total column measurements. The satellite-plus-sonde measurements agree with the ground-based ozone total columns with mean relative differences of 0.1-7.3%. For NO 2, partial columns from 17 km upward were scaled to noon using a photochemical model. Mean relative differences between OSIRIS, ACE-FTS and ground-based NO 2 measurements do not exceed 20%. ACE-MAESTRO measures more NO 2 than the other instruments, with mean relative differences of 25-52%. Seasonal variation in the differences between NO 2 partial columns is observed, suggesting that there are systematic errors in the measurements and/or the photochemical model corrections. For ozone spring-time measurements, additional coincidence criteria based on stratospheric temperature and the location of the polar vortex were found to improve agreement between some of the instruments. For ACE-FTS v2.2 minus Bruker FTIR, the 2007-2009 spring-time mean relative difference improved from -5.0 ± 0.4% to -3.1 ± 0.8% with the dynamical selection criteria. This was the largest improvement, likely because both instruments measure direct sunlight and therefore have well-characterized lines-of-sight compared with scattered sunlight measurements. For NO 2, the addition of a ±1°latitude coincidence criterion improved spring-time intercomparison results, likely due to the sharp latitudinal gradient of NO 2 during polar sunrise. The differences between satellite and ground-based measurements do not show any obvious trends over the missions, indicating that both the ACE and OSIRIS instruments continue to perform well. © Author(s) 2012. Source


Yang X.,National Center for Atmospheric Science | Yang X.,University of Cambridge | Pyle J.A.,National Center for Atmospheric Science | Pyle J.A.,University of Cambridge | And 3 more authors.
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics | Year: 2010

In the last two decades, significant depletion of boundary layer ozone (ozone depletion events, ODEs) has been observed in both Arctic and Antarctic spring. ODEs are attributed to catalytic destruction by bromine radicals (Br plus BrO), especially during bromine explosion events (BEs), when high concentrations of BrO periodically occur. However, neither the exact source of bromine nor the mechanism for sustaining the observed high BrO concentrations is completely understood. Here, by considering the production of sea salt aerosol from snow lying on sea ice during blowing snow events and the subsequent release of bromine, we successfully simulate the BEs using a global chemistry transport model. We find that heterogeneous reactions play an important role in sustaining a high fraction of the total inorganic bromine as BrO. We also find that emissions of bromine associated with blowing snow contribute significantly to BrO at mid-latitudes. Modeled tropospheric BrO columns generally compare well with the tropospheric BrO columns retrieved from the GOME satellite instrument (Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment). The additional blowing snow bromine source, identified here, reduces modeled high latitude lower tropospheric ozone amounts by up to an average 8% in polar spring. © 2010 Author(s). Source


Kerzenmacher T.,Institute Daeronomie Spatiale Of Belgique Iasb Bira | Dils B.,Institute Daeronomie Spatiale Of Belgique Iasb Bira | Kumps N.,Institute Daeronomie Spatiale Of Belgique Iasb Bira | Blumenstock T.,Karlsruhe Institute of Technology | And 19 more authors.
Atmospheric Measurement Techniques | Year: 2012

Carbon monoxide (CO) is retrieved daily and globally from space-borne IASI radiance spectra using the Fast Optimal Retrievals on Layers for IASI (FORLI) software developed at the Université Libre de Bruxelles (ULB). The IASI CO total column product for 2008 from the most recent FORLI retrieval version (20100815) is evaluated using correlative CO profile products retrieved from ground-based solar absorption Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) observations at the following FTIR spectrometer sites from the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC): Ny-Ã..lesund, Kiruna, Bremen, Jungfraujoch, Izaña and Wollongong. In order to have good statistics for the comparisons, we included all IASI data from the same day, within a 100 km radius around the ground-based stations. The individual ground-based data were adjusted to the lowest altitude of the co-located IASI CO profiles. To account for the different vertical resolutions and sensitivities of the ground-based and satellite measurements, the averaging kernels associated with the various retrieved products have been used to properly smooth coincident data products. It has been found that the IASI CO total column products compare well on average with the co-located ground-based FTIR total columns at the selected NDACC sites and that there is no significant bias for the mean values at all stations. © 2012 Author(s). Source

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