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Ribeiro-Rodrigues E.M.,Federal University of Para | Ribeiro-Rodrigues E.M.,Institute Criminalistica | Palha T.D.J.B.F.,Federal University of Para | Palha T.D.J.B.F.,Institute Criminalistica | And 3 more authors.
International Journal of Legal Medicine | Year: 2011

The admixed Brazilian population shows high levels of genetic variability, which resulted from the contribution of three main ethnicities, Amerindian, European, and African. However, due to its huge territory, admixing has been asymmetrical, i.e., the relative contribution from each ethnicity has been unequal in the five geopolitical regions of the country. The aim of this study was to describe genetic variability using a panel of short-tandem repeats on the X chromosome (X-STR) in order to perform a comprehensive evaluation of the usefulness of such markers for forensic purposes in Brazil. Twelve X-STR (DXS9895, DXS7132, DXS6800, DXS9898, DXS6789, DXS7133, GATA172D05, DXS7130, HPRTB, GATA31E08, DXS7423, and DXS10011) were chosen and tested in a sample of 2,234 individuals belonging to 16 out of the 27 Brazilian States, representing all of its five geopolitical regions. No markers showed significant deviation from the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, even when analyses were partitioned to represent geopolitical regions. Genetic diversity per locus ranged from 67% (DSX7133) to 95% (DXS10011), and the State of Ceará showed the highest average genetic diversity (79% for all 12 X-STR markers). Considering the Brazilian population as a whole, the power of discrimination of the 12 X-STR panel in females (PDF) was 0.999999999999994, while the power of discrimination in males (PDM) was 0.9999999969. Such high values suggest the potential of that panel to be used in forensic applications and relatedness tests among individuals. Comparisons among the Brazilian populations investigated revealed significant differences when they were compared among each other, a pattern that was maintained when additional populations from Europe and Latin America were compared to Brazilians. Our results highlight the need and usefulness of specific genetic database for forensic purposes in Brazilian populations. © 2011 Springer-Verlag. Source


Almeida Prado Oliveira E Sousa M.L.,Federal University of Sao Paulo | Almeida Prado Oliveira E Sousa M.L.,Institute Criminalistica Of Sao Paulo | De Oliveira M.A.T.,Federal University of Sao Paulo | Auler-Bittencout E.A.,Federal University of Sao Paulo | And 4 more authors.
Forensic Science International: Genetics | Year: 2014

The State of São Paulo is the most populous state in Brazil, including approximately one fifth of the population of the country. In addition to a strong economy, the state has relatively good social indicators when compared with the rest of the country. The capital city, also called São Paulo, is the sixth largest city in the world. Its population is considered the most multicultural and racially mixed in Brazil. Currently, the largest populations in São Paulo are of Italian, Lebanese, Spanish and Japanese origin, and the state has the largest number of Northeasterners outside of the Northeast region. This population structure may lead to a particular genotype frequency. In this context, the formation of a new database containing the allele frequencies of five new genetic markers (D2S441, D10S1248, D22S1045, D1S1656 and D12S391) in a sample population is relevant. The allele frequencies of 16 STR loci, including the five new European Standard Set (ESS) loci, were calculated in a sample of 1088-1098 unrelated individuals, who geographically represent the Capital city. © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Source


Freitas J.C.D.,Brazilian National Nuclear Energy Commission | Freitas J.C.D.,Institute Criminalistica Of Sao Paulo | Sarkis J.E.S.,Brazilian National Nuclear Energy Commission | Neto O.N.,Institute Criminalistica Of Sao Paulo | Viebig S.B.,Institute Criminalistica Of Sao Paulo
Journal of Forensic Sciences | Year: 2012

During criminal investigations involving firearms, the detection of gunshot residues (GSRs) is one of the most important evidences. In the present study, a new method to identify trace evidences of GSRs, deposited around the bullet entrance hole, in different types of fabrics used as targets, is described. The experiments were carried out using a 0.38-inch caliber revolver, and 9-mm and 0.40-inch caliber pistols. Testimonies of 2.25cm 2 of the fabrics were cut around the bullet entrance and digested with 10% nitric acid. Antimony, barium, and lead were analyzed in the remaining solution using a sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer. The concentrations of the elements were detected at levels up to few microgram per square centimeter. The use of ternary graphics allowed us to identify specific patterns of distribution for blank samples and the clear distinction between the revolver and pistols used. © 2011 American Academy of Forensic Sciences. Source

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