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Dourado I.,Federal University of Bahia | Brignol S.,Federal University of Fluminense | Andrade T.D.M.,Federal University of Bahia | Bastos F.I.,Institute Comunicacao e Informacao Cientifica e Tecnologica em Saude ICICT
International Journal of Drug Policy | Year: 2017

Background The burden of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), such as syphilis, is higher in low-income countries, with serious consequences and profound impact on sexual and reproductive health and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) spread. Syphilis prevalence tend to be higher among people who misuse drugs than in the general population. Objective To assess syphilis and associated factors among polydrug users (PDU) in the city of Salvador, Northeast Brazil. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in 10 Brazilian cities between September and November 2009 using Respondent Driven Sampling (RDS). Participants answered an Audio Computer-Assisted Self Interview (ACASI) and were rapid tested for HIV and syphilis. We performed multivariable regression models for correlates of syphilis on Stata 10.0. Estimates were weighted by the inverse size of the individual social network size and homophily. Results Mean age was 29.3 years (range: 18–62), 74.0% were males, and 89.8% were non-white. Syphilis prevalence was 16.6%. Females (adjwOR:2.14; 95%CI:1.09–4.20), individuals over 29 years old (adjwOR:4.44; 95%CI:2.41–8.19), those who exchanged sex for money or drugs (adjwOR:3.51; 95%CI:1.84–6.71), “No/low” self-perceived risk of HIV infection (adjwOR:5.13; 95%CI:1.36–19.37), and having nine or less years of education (adjwOR:2.92; 95%CI:1.08–7.88) were associated with syphilis. Conclusion One of the most pressing needs for syphilis prevention/control is the availability of rapid point-of-care diagnostic tests and treatment. Interventions should be tailored to PDU needs and their multiple burdens as shown in the present study, that may contribute to future studies aiming to better understand the relationships between drug use and syphilis. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.


Sant'Anna L.S.,State University of Rio de Janeiro | Alencar M.S.M.,Institute Comunicacao e Informacao Cientifica e Tecnologica em Saude ICICT
Scientometrics | Year: 2014

Progress on the development of nanotechnology has led to a number of initiatives which serve to normalize activities in this area. Among emerging technologies, nanotechnology is one of the most prominent, and it raises high expectations in a wide range of areas affecting daily life. The risks to human health, the pathways of exposure to nanomaterials, and occupational safety are recent issues which require more attention. The study was performed on nanopatents by collecting, processing and analyzing information extracted from specialized patent databases covering the period from 1991 to 2011, totalling 1,343 patents and representing 36 countries. These patents were classified by the International Patent Classification, using the methodology proposed in a study published by Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, which resulted in six groups of patents, distributed as follows: nanomaterials (40.3 %), medicine and biotechnology (26.6 %), measurement and production (10 %), electronics (2.7 %), energy and the environment (2.2 %), and optical electronics (1 %). Around 17 % of the patents in question did not fall into the adopted classification. The aim of this paper is to analyze the main trends of patenting related to nanotechnology, its development and environmental implications. An additional goal is to assist policy-makers to adjust the regulatory framework on nanotechnology, and to make recommendations for governments, industry, and national organizations, on creating specific subsidies for regulatory framework in Brazil. © 2014 Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary.


PubMed | Federal University of Acre, Nucleo Operacional Sentinela de Mosquitos Vetores DIRAC IOC VPAAPS, Emory University, Programa de Computacao Cientifica and 3 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2015

Fish farming in the Amazon has been stimulated as a solution to increase economic development. However, poorly managed fish ponds have been sometimes associated with the presence of Anopheles spp. and consequently, with malaria transmission. In this study, we analyzed the spatial and temporal dynamics of malaria in the state of Acre (and more closely within a single county) to investigate the potential links between aquaculture and malaria transmission in this region. At the state level, we classified the 22 counties into three malaria endemicity patterns, based on the correlation between notification time series. Furthermore, the study period (2003-2013) was divided into two phases (epidemic and post-epidemic). Higher fish pond construction coincided both spatially and temporally with increased rate of malaria notification. Within one malaria endemic county, we investigated the relationship between the geolocation of malaria cases (2011-2012) and their distance to fish ponds. Entomological surveys carried out in these ponds provided measurements of anopheline abundance that were significantly associated with the abundance of malaria cases within 100 m of the ponds (P < 0.005; r = 0.39). These results taken together suggest that fish farming contributes to the maintenance of high transmission levels of malaria in this region.


PubMed | Federal University of Fluminense, Federal University of Bahia and Institute Comunicacao e Informacao Cientifica e Tecnologica em Saude ICICT
Type: | Journal: The International journal on drug policy | Year: 2016

The burden of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), such as syphilis, is higher in low-income countries, with serious consequences and profound impact on sexual and reproductive health and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) spread. Syphilis prevalence tend to be higher among people who misuse drugs than in the general population.To assess syphilis and associated factors among polydrug users (PDU) in the city of Salvador, Northeast Brazil.A cross-sectional study was conducted in 10 Brazilian cities between September and November 2009 using Respondent Driven Sampling (RDS). Participants answered an Audio Computer-Assisted Self Interview (ACASI) and were rapid tested for HIV and syphilis. We performed multivariable regression models for correlates of syphilis on Stata 10.0. Estimates were weighted by the inverse size of the individual social network size and homophily.Mean age was 29.3 years (range: 18-62), 74.0% were males, and 89.8% were non-white. Syphilis prevalence was 16.6%. Females (adjwOR:2.14; 95%CI:1.09-4.20), individuals over 29 years old (adjwOR:4.44; 95%CI:2.41-8.19), those who exchanged sex for money or drugs (adjwOR:3.51; 95%CI:1.84-6.71), No/low self-perceived risk of HIV infection (adjwOR:5.13; 95%CI:1.36-19.37), and having nine or less years of education (adjwOR:2.92; 95%CI:1.08-7.88) were associated with syphilis.One of the most pressing needs for syphilis prevention/control is the availability of rapid point-of-care diagnostic tests and treatment. Interventions should be tailored to PDU needs and their multiple burdens as shown in the present study, that may contribute to future studies aiming to better understand the relationships between drug use and syphilis.


dos Reis I.C.,Instituto Oswaldo Cruz Fiocruz | dos Reis I.C.,National Institute for Space Research | Honorio N.A.,Instituto Oswaldo Cruz Fiocruz | Codeco C.T.,Programa de Computacao Cientifica Fiocruz | And 3 more authors.
Acta Tropica | Year: 2010

Entomological surveys on Aedes aegypti (L.) often focus on residential premises, while ignoring non-residential premises. It has been proposed that the latter should be subject to specific monitoring strategies, since they have the potential to contribute a large proportion of the overall mosquito population. In this study, we used traps for ovipositing females to compare the levels of Ae. aegypti infestation in residential and non-residential premises and assess whether there was any evidence for a spatial association of infestation between non-residential premises and the surrounding homes. This information is important for designing specific surveillance programmes for these special sites and their surroundings. This study was conducted in three neighbourhoods of the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, with distinct population densities, water services, dengue histories and vegetation coverage. Ae. aegypti abundance was measured using two types of traps (standard and sticky ovitraps) installed in five non-residential premises and 80 residential premises per neighbourhood. Mosquitoes were collected in the summer (January to March) and winter (June to September) of 2007. The distribution of captures per household per week did not differ significantly between the seasons, although larger numbers of eggs and adults were obtained during the summer. Most non-residential premises were not significantly more infested than homes, despite the larger quantities of containers. There were a few exceptions, including a transportation company, two recycling centres and a boat yard. These highly infested non-residential premises were also spatially associated with highly infested homes in the vicinity. Continuous monitoring with traps may be an effective way of evaluating non-residential premises as sources of dengue vectors for nearby communities. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


PubMed | Federal University of Rio de Janeiro and Institute Comunicacao e Informacao Cientifica e Tecnologica em Saude ICICT
Type: | Journal: Neural plasticity | Year: 2016

Somatosensory electrical stimulation (SES) has been proposed as an approach to treat patients with sensory-motor impairment such as spasticity. However, there is still no consensus regarding which would be the adequate SES parameters to treat those deficits. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of applying SES over the forearm muscles at four different frequencies of stimulation (3, 30, 150, and 300Hz) and in two intervals of time (5 and 30) by means of transcranial magnetic stimulation and Hoffmanns reflex (H-reflex) in healthy volunteers (ExperimentsI and II). A group of stroke patients (ExperimentIII) was also preliminary evaluated to ascertain SES effects at a low frequency (3Hz) applied for 30 over the forearm spastic flexors muscles by measuring the wrist joint passive torque. Motor evoked potentials and the H-reflex were collected from different forearm and hand muscles immediately before and after SES and up to 5 (ExperimentI) and 10 (ExperimentsI and II) later. None of the investigated frequencies of SES was able to operate as a key in switching modulatory effects in the central nervous system of healthy volunteers and stroke patients with spasticity.


Guimaraes M.C.S.,Institute Comunicacao e Informacao Cientifica e Tecnologica em Saude ICICT | Silva C.H.,Institute Comunicacao e Informacao Cientifica e Tecnologica em Saude ICICT | Noronha I.H.,Institute Comunicacao e Informacao Cientifica e Tecnologica em Saude ICICT
Salud Colectiva | Year: 2011

After more than a century of research, the debate about how social processes shape the health of populations remains very much alive. The evidence collected througout this time, in its variety of contexts and historical periods, points to a complex equation between health, inequalities in living conditions and the interactions and associations between individuals and groups. Because they are avoidable, unfair and unnecessary, health inequities are elements open to intervention: in particular, access to information emerges as an important dimension of health equity. This article aims to contribute to the discussion of this topic, especially with regard to the concept of access to information and some of its various dimensions. Finally, the article proposes the need for launching an affirmative agenda focused on promoting the use of information in and for health.


Hacker M.A.,Instituto Oswaldo Cruz | Sales A.M.,Instituto Oswaldo Cruz | Illarramendi X.,Instituto Oswaldo Cruz | Nery J.A.,Instituto Oswaldo Cruz | And 3 more authors.
Revista Panamericana de Salud Publica/Pan American Journal of Public Health | Year: 2012

Objective. To analyze a profile of patients treated at a national leprosy outpatient referral clinic in metropolitan Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, over a period of more than two decades, and the subgroup of nationally registered leprosy cases from the same residential area, as well as all registered cases statewide. Methods. An observational, descriptive analysis was carried out for patients treated from 1986 to 2007 at the Souza Araújo Outpatient Clinic (AmbulatÓrio Souza Araújo, ASA), a national referral center for the diagnosis and treatment of leprosy at the Oswaldo Cruz Foundation (Fiocruz) that serves clients from the city of Rio de Janeiro and other municipalities in the metropolitan area of Rio de Janeiro State. Demographic and clinical data for the subgroup of leprosy cases registered with Brazil's National Disease Notification System (Sistema Nacional de Informação de Agravos de Notificação, SINAN) between 2001 and 2007 and residing in the same municipalities as the ASA patients, and for all registered cases statewide, were also analyzed. Results. Among the ASA patients, there was a decrease in average family income (from 3.9 to 2.7 times the minimum salary between the periods 1998-2002 and 2003-2007); the proportion of multibacillary (MB) patients (from 52.7% to 46.9%); and the proportion of patients younger than 15 years old (from 12.8% to 8.7%). Among the MB patients, the average initial and final bacilloscopic indices were significantly higher in 2003-2007. Compared with the SINAN cases, more ASA cases involved disability and were younger than 15 years old. Conclusions. Patients living with leprosy in the metropolitan area of the state of Rio de Janeiro belong to the most deprived social strata and have not benefited from the overall improvement in socioeconomic conditions in Brazil.


de Paula T.C.,Federal University of Fluminense | Bochner R.,Institute Comunicacao e Informacao Cientifica e Tecnologica em Saude ICICT | Montilla D.E.R.,Institute Comunicacao e Informacao Cientifica e Tecnologica em Saude ICICT
Revista Brasileira de Epidemiologia | Year: 2012

The elderly are more susceptible to adverse drugs effects due to a variety of factors, such as excessive and concomitant use of several drugs, administration errors, physiological changes in the body that alter the pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics. In order to determine the main therapeutic classes involved in hospital admissions of elderly people due to intoxication and adverse drug effects, as well as major health problems related to these events, 9,793 hospitalizations of people aged 60 or over registered in the Hospital Information System of the Unified Health System (SIH-SUS) in the period of 2004 to 2008 were analyzed. Unspecified drugs, systemic antibiotics, psychotropics, psychoactives, antiepileptics, sedatives, hypnotics and antiparkinsonians accounted for 57% of the total of admissions analyzed. Injuries and falls were the main health problems related to intoxication and adverse drug effects. Hospitalizations due to injuries were associated with analgesic, antipyretic and antirheumatic non-opioid. Falls were associated with systemic antibiotics, contradicting studies which point out psychotropic drugs as the main drug involved in these events. The results reflect the growing trend of problems associated with drug use by elderly people. It was verified that the consumption profile alone is not sufficient to explain the concentration of cases of the major therapeutic classes. We suggest the adoption of more effective programs of pharmacovigilance, capable of intervening at different stages of drug use: prescribing, dispensing, marketing, administration and compliance.


PubMed | Institute Comunicacao e Informacao Cientifica e Tecnologica em Saude ICICT
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Revista portuguesa de cardiologia : orgao oficial da Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia = Portuguese journal of cardiology : an official journal of the Portuguese Society of Cardiology | Year: 2012

Measurement of quality indicators contributes to monitoring the performance of initial treatment of ST-elevated myocardial infarction (STEMI).To develop a virtual tool to calculate performance indicators of initial treatment of STEMI online via the internet.We identified critical elements of the therapeutic process and formulated indicators in a retrospective pilot study, and developed a virtual tool for prospective data collection on initial treatment of STEMI. Rio de Janeiro hospitals with emergency care units were selected and invited to participate in the project. Online reports were developed to be accessed at www.qualiiam.icict.fiocruz.br/indicadores.php and analyzed.Five hospitals agreed to participate in the project and monitored treatment of different numbers of patients with a diagnosis of STEMI (A = 7, B = 14, C = 16, D = 44 and E = 43). Aspirin was administered in 94.6% of cases, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers in 76.1% and beta-blockers in 82.5%; 68.4% of patients with no contraindication received fibrinolysis. In no case was door-to-needle time less than 30 min, and mean time was 122 min. All patients admitted to hospitals with catheterization facilities underwent primary angioplasty; mean door-to-balloon time in these patients was 161 min; in only 28% was it less than 90 min.The system can be used as a tool to monitor the performance of initial treatment of patients with STEMI. Analysis of these indicators in the future may help to evaluate the contribution of online reporting to the development of better treatment practices.

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