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Illkirch-Graffenstaden, France

Raveau M.,University of Strasbourg | Lignon J.M.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Nalesso V.,University of Strasbourg | Duchon A.,University of Strasbourg | And 7 more authors.
PLoS Genetics | Year: 2012

Down syndrome (DS) leads to complex phenotypes and is the main genetic cause of birth defects and heart diseases. The Ts65Dn DS mouse model is trisomic for the distal part of mouse chromosome 16 and displays similar features with post-natal lethality and cardiovascular defects. In order to better understand these defects, we defined electrocardiogram (ECG) with a precordial set-up, and we found conduction defects and modifications in wave shape, amplitudes, and durations in Ts65Dn mice. By using a genetic approach consisting of crossing Ts65Dn mice with Ms5Yah mice monosomic for the App-Runx1 genetic interval, we showed that the Ts65Dn viability and ECG were improved by this reduction of gene copy number. Whole-genome expression studies confirmed gene dosage effect in Ts65Dn, Ms5Yah, and Ts65Dn/Ms5Yah hearts and showed an overall perturbation of pathways connected to post-natal lethality (Coq7, Dyrk1a, F5, Gabpa, Hmgn1, Pde10a, Morc3, Slc5a3, and Vwf) and heart function (Tfb1m, Adam19, Slc8a1/Ncx1, and Rcan1). In addition cardiac connexins (Cx40, Cx43) and sodium channel sub-units (Scn5a, Scn1b, Scn10a) were found down-regulated in Ts65Dn atria with additional down-regulation of Cx40 in Ts65Dn ventricles and were likely contributing to conduction defects. All these data pinpoint new cardiac phenotypes in the Ts65Dn, mimicking aspects of human DS features and pathways altered in the mouse model. In addition they highlight the role of the App-Runx1 interval, including Sod1 and Tiam1, in the induction of post-natal lethality and of the cardiac conduction defects in Ts65Dn. These results might lead to new therapeutic strategies to improve the care of DS people. © 2012 Raveau et al. Source

Becker J.,University of Strasbourg | Becker J.,Institute Clinique Of La Souris | Delayre-Orthez C.,University of Strasbourg | Delayre-Orthez C.,Polytechnic Institute of LaSalle Beauvais | And 2 more authors.
Fundamental and Clinical Pharmacology | Year: 2012

In the present study, we have investigated the effect of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) agonist fenofibrate on airway reactivity and the role of the endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS)/NO pathway in this effect. Airway reactivity to methacholine was assessed in C57BL/6 mice treated or not with fenofibrate by whole-body plethysmography. In some experiments, animals were administered with the NOS inhibitor L-NAME, one hour before airway reactivity measurement. Expression and phosphorylation of eNOS were evaluated in lung homogenates from fenofibrate and control animals using Western blotting. Fenofibrate dose and time dependently decreased airway reactivity to methacholine in mice. A statistically significant (P<0.05) reduction was observed after a treatment of 10days with a dose of 3 or 15mg/day fenofibrate. Mice treated with fenofibrate and administered with l-NAME exhibited similar reactivity to methacholine than vehicle-treated mice administered with the NOS inhibitor, suggesting that NO mediates fenofibrate-induced decrease in airway reactivity. eNOS levels remained unchanged in the lung from mice treated with fenofibrate, but phosphorylation of the enzyme at Ser-1177 was increased by 118% (P<0.05). Taken together, our data demonstrate that fenofibrate downregulates airway reactivity to methacholine in the mouse and suggest that this effect could involve an increase in NO generation through an enhanced eNOS phosphorylation. © 2011 The Authors Fundamental and Clinical Pharmacology © 2011 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique. Source

Wang S.,Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research | Wang S.,University of California at San Diego | Wu D.,Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research | Quintin S.,University of Strasbourg | And 6 more authors.
eLife | Year: 2015

Non-centrosomal microtubule arrays assemble in differentiated tissues to perform mechanical and transport-based functions. In this study, we identify Caenorhabditis elegans NOCA-1 as a protein with homology to vertebrate ninein. NOCA-1 contributes to the assembly of noncentrosomal microtubule arrays in multiple tissues. In the larval epidermis, NOCA-1 functions redundantly with the minus end protection factor Patronin/PTRN-1 to assemble a circumferential microtubule array essential for worm growth and morphogenesis. Controlled degradation of a γ-tubulin complex subunit in this tissue revealed that γ-tubulin acts with NOCA-1 in parallel to Patronin/PTRN-1. In the germline, NOCA-1 and γ-tubulin co-localize at the cell surface, and inhibiting either leads to a microtubule assembly defect. γ-tubulin targets independently of NOCA-1, but NOCA-1 targeting requires γ-tubulin when a non-essential putatively palmitoylated cysteine is mutated. These results show that NOCA-1 acts with γ-tubulin to assemble non-centrosomal arrays in multiple tissues and highlight functional overlap between the ninein and Patronin protein families. © Wang et al. Source

Erbs E.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Faget L.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Faget L.,University of California at San Diego | Scherrer G.,Stanford University | And 14 more authors.
Brain Structure and Function | Year: 2014

Opioid receptors are G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) that modulate brain function at all levels of neural integration, including autonomic, sensory, emotional and cognitive processing. Mu (MOR) and delta (DOR) opioid receptors functionally interact in vivo, but whether interactions occur at circuitry, cellular or molecular levels remains unsolved. To challenge the hypothesis of MOR/DOR heteromerization in the brain, we generated redMOR/greenDOR double knock-in mice and report dual receptor mapping throughout the nervous system. Data are organized as an interactive database offering an opioid receptor atlas with concomitant MOR/DOR visualization at subcellular resolution, accessible online. We also provide co-immunoprecipitation-based evidence for receptor heteromerization in these mice. In the forebrain, MOR and DOR are mainly detected in separate neurons, suggesting system-level interactions in high-order processing. In contrast, neuronal co-localization is detected in subcortical networks essential for survival involved in eating and sexual behaviors or perception and response to aversive stimuli. In addition, potential MOR/DOR intracellular interactions within the nociceptive pathway offer novel therapeutic perspectives. © 2014 The Author(s). Source

Duchon A.,University of Strasbourg | Raveau M.,University of Strasbourg | Chevalier C.,University of Strasbourg | Nalesso V.,University of Strasbourg | And 4 more authors.
Mammalian Genome | Year: 2011

Down syndrome (DS) is the most frequent genetic disorder leading to intellectual disabilities and is caused by three copies of human chromosome 21. Mouse models are widely used to better understand the physiopathology in DS or to test new therapeutic approaches. The older and the most widely used mouse models are the trisomic Ts65Dn and the Ts1Cje mice. They display deficits similar to those observed in DS people, such as those in behavior and cognition or in neuronal abnormalities. The Ts65Dn model is currently used for further therapeutic assessment of candidate drugs. In both models, the trisomy was induced by reciprocal chromosomal translocations that were not further characterized. Using a comparative genomic approach, we have been able to locate precisely the translocation breakpoint in these two models and we took advantage of this finding to derive a new and more efficient Ts65Dn genotyping strategy. Furthermore, we found that the translocations introduce additional aneuploidy in both models, with a monosomy of seven genes in the most telomeric part of mouse chromosome 12 in the Ts1Cje and a trisomy of 60 centromeric genes on mouse chromosome 17 in the Ts65Dn. Finally, we report here the overexpression of the newly found aneuploid genes in the Ts65Dn heart and we discuss their potential impact on the validity of the DS model. © 2011 The Author(s). Source

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