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Onetti Y.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | Dantas A.P.,Institute Clinic del Torax | Perez B.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | Cugota R.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | And 4 more authors.
American Journal of Physiology - Heart and Circulatory Physiology | Year: 2015

Ischemia impairs blood supply to the brain, and reperfusion is important to restore cerebral blood flow (CBF) and rescue neurons from cell death. However, reperfusion can induce CBF values exceeding the basal values before ischemia. This hyperemic effect has been associated with a worse ischemic brain damage, albeit the mechanisms that contribute to infarct expansion are not clear. In this study, we investigated the influence of early postischemic hyperemia on brain damage and middle cerebral artery (MCA) properties and the effect of treatment with the endogenous antioxidant uric acid (UA). The MCA was occluded for 90 min followed by 24 h reperfusion in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. Cortical CBF increases at reperfusion beyond 20% of basal values were taken as indicative of hyperemia. UA (16 mg/kg) or vehicle (Locke's buffer) was administered intravenously 135 min after MCA occlusion. Hyperemic compared with nonhyperemic rats showed MCA wall thickening (sham: 22.4 ± 0.8 μm; nonhyperemic: 23.1 ± 1.2 μm; hyperemic: 27.8 ± 0.9 at 60 mmHg; P < 0.001, hyperemic vs. sham) involving adventitial cell proliferation, increased oxidative stress, and interleukin-18, and more severe brain damage. Thus MCA remodeling after ischemia-reperfusion takes place under vascular oxidative and inflammatory stress conditions linked to hyperemia. UA administration attenuated MCA wall thickening, induced passive lumen expansion, and reduced brain damage in hyperemic rats, although it did not increase brain UA concentration. We conclude that hyperemia at reperfusion following brain ischemia induces vascular damage that can be attenuated by administration of the endogenous antioxidant UA. © 2015 the American Physiological Society.


Roig E.,Hospital Of La Santa Creu I Sant Pau | Almenar L.,Polytechnic University of Valencia | Crespo-Leiro M.,Hospital Universitario runa | Segovia J.,Servicio de Cardiologia | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation | Year: 2015

Background The lengthy waiting time for heart transplantation is associated with high mortality. To increase the number of donors, new strategies have emerged, including the use of hearts from donors ≥50 years old. However, this practice remains controversial. The aim of this study was to evaluate outcomes of patients receiving heart transplants from older donors. Methods We retrospectively analyzed 2,102 consecutive heart transplants in 8 Spanish hospitals from 1998 to 2010. Acute and overall mortality were compared in patients with grafts from donors ≥50 years old versus grafts from younger donors. Results There were 1,758 (84%) transplanted grafts from donors < 50 years old (Group I) and 344 (16%) from donors ≥50 years old (Group II). Group I had more male donors than Group II (71% vs 57%, p = 0.0001). The incidence of cardiovascular risk factors was higher in older donors. There were no differences in acute mortality or acute rejection episodes between the 2 groups. Global mortality was higher in Group II (rate ratio, 1.40; 95% confidence interval, 1.18-1.67; p = 0.001) than in Group I. After adjusting for donor cause of death, donor smoking history, recipient age, induction therapy, and cyclosporine therapy, the differences lost significance. Group II had a higher incidence of coronary allograft vasculopathy at 5 years (rate ratio, 1.67; 95% confidence interval, 1.22-2.27; p = 0.001). Conclusions There were no differences in acute and overall mortality after adjusting for confounding factors. However, there was a midterm increased risk of coronary allograft vasculopathy with the use of older donors. Careful selection of recipients and close monitoring of coronary allograft vasculopathy are warranted in these patients. © 2015 International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation.


PubMed | Servicio de Cardiologia, Hospital Central Of Asturias, University of La Coruña, Hospital Universitario runa and 5 more.
Type: Comparative Study | Journal: The Journal of heart and lung transplantation : the official publication of the International Society for Heart Transplantation | Year: 2015

The lengthy waiting time for heart transplantation is associated with high mortality. To increase the number of donors, new strategies have emerged, including the use of hearts from donors 50 years old. However, this practice remains controversial. The aim of this study was to evaluate outcomes of patients receiving heart transplants from older donors.We retrospectively analyzed 2,102 consecutive heart transplants in 8 Spanish hospitals from 1998 to 2010. Acute and overall mortality were compared in patients with grafts from donors 50 years old versus grafts from younger donors.There were 1,758 (84%) transplanted grafts from donors < 50 years old (Group I) and 344 (16%) from donors 50 years old (Group II). Group I had more male donors than Group II (71% vs. 57%, p = 0.0001). The incidence of cardiovascular risk factors was higher in older donors. There were no differences in acute mortality or acute rejection episodes between the 2 groups. Global mortality was higher in Group II (rate ratio, 1.40; 95% confidence interval, 1.18-1.67; p = 0.001) than in Group I. After adjusting for donor cause of death, donor smoking history, recipient age, induction therapy, and cyclosporine therapy, the differences lost significance. Group II had a higher incidence of coronary allograft vasculopathy at 5 years (rate ratio, 1.67; 95% confidence interval, 1.22-2.27; p = 0.001).There were no differences in acute and overall mortality after adjusting for confounding factors. However, there was a midterm increased risk of coronary allograft vasculopathy with the use of older donors. Careful selection of recipients and close monitoring of coronary allograft vasculopathy are warranted in these patients.


Costa T.J.,University of Sao Paulo | Ceravolo G.S.,University of Sao Paulo | Ceravolo G.S.,State University Londrina | Dos Santos R.A.,University of Sao Paulo | And 8 more authors.
American Journal of Physiology - Heart and Circulatory Physiology | Year: 2015

Testosterone has been added to hormone replacement therapy to treat sexual dysfunction in postmenopausal women. Whereas estrogen has been associated with vascular protection, the vascular effects of testosterone are contradictory and the effects of its association with estrogen are largely unknown. In this study we determined the effects of testosterone associated with conjugated equine estrogen (CEE) on vascular function using a model of hypertensive postmenopausal female: ovariectomized spontaneously hypertensive rats. Female spontaneously hypertensive rats were divided into sham-operated, ovariectomized (OVX), and OVX treated for 15 days with either CEE alone (OVX+CEE) or associated with testosterone (OVX+CEE+T). Angiotensin II (ANG II)-induced contraction was markedly increased in aortic rings from OVX compared with sham-operated rats. CEE treatment restored ANG-II responses, a beneficial effect abrogated with CEE+T. CEE treatment also increased endothelium-dependent relaxation, which was impaired in OVX rats. This effect was lost by CEE+T. Treatment of aortas with losartan (ANG-II type-1 receptor antagonist) or apocynin (NADPH-oxidase inhibitor) restored the endothelium-dependent relaxation in OVX and CEE+T, establishing an interplay between ANG-II and endothelial dysfunction in OVX and CEE+T. The benefits by CEE were associated with downregulation of NADPH-oxidase subunits mRNA expression and decreased reactive oxygen species generation. The association of testosterone with CEE impairs the benefits of estrogen on OVX-associated endothelial dysfunction and reactive oxygen species generation in rat aorta by a mechanism that involves phosphorylation of the cytosolic NADPHoxidase subunit p47phox. © 2015 the American Physiological Society.


Marquez-Martin A.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | Jimenez-Altayo F.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | Dantas A.P.,Institute Clinic Del Torax | Caracuel L.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Applied Physiology | Year: 2012

Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CHP) induces microvascular changes that could contribute to the progression of vascular cognitive impairment and dementia in the aging brain. This study aimed to analyze the effects of CHP on structural, mechanical, and myogenic properties of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) after bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAO) in adult male Wistar rats. Sham animals underwent a similar surgical procedure without carotid artery (CA) ligation. After 15 days of occlusion, MCA and CA were dissected and MCA structural, mechanical, and myogenic properties were assessed by pressure myography. Collagen I/III expression was determined by immunofluorescence in MCA and CA and by Western blot in CA. mRNA levels for 1A1, 1A2, and 3A1 collagen subunits were quantified by quantitative real-time PCR in CA. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-1, MMP-2, MMP-9, and MMP-13) and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) protein expression were determined in CA by Western blot. BCCAO diminished cross-sectional area, wall thickness, and wall-to-lumen ratio. Nevertheless, whereas wall stress was increased, stiffness was not modified and myogenic response was diminished. Hypoperfusion triggered HIF-1α expression. Collagen I/III protein expression diminished in MCA and CA after BCCAO, despite increased mRNA levels for 1A1 and 3A1 collagen subunits. Therefore, the reduced collagen expression might be due to proteolytic degradation, since the expression of MMP-1 and MMP-9 increased in the CA. These data suggest that BCCAO induces hypotrophic remodeling by a mechanism that involves a reduction of collagen I/III in association with increased MMP-1 and MMP-9 and that decreases myogenic tone in major arteries supplying the brain. Copyright © 2012 the American Physiological Society.


Dang M.-T.T.,Michigan State University | Gu C.,Michigan State University | Klavanian J.I.,Michigan State University | Jernigan K.A.,Michigan State University | And 6 more authors.
Lung | Year: 2013

Background: Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in angiotensinogen (AGT) at positions -20 and -6 are associated with increased severity and progression of various fibrotic diseases. Our earlier work demonstrated that the progression of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) was associated with the A-6 allele. This study examined the hypothesis that the homozygous CC genotype at -20 and the AA genotype at -6 would confer worse measures of pulmonary function (measured by pulmonary function tests) in IPF. Methods: Multiple logistic regression analysis was applied to a NIH Lung Tissue Research Consortium cohort and a Spanish cohort, while also adjusting for covariates to determine the effects of these SNPs on measures of pulmonary function. Results: Analysis demonstrated that the CC genotype at -20 was strongly associated with reduced diffusing capacity in males in both cohorts (p = 0.0028 for LTRC and p = 0.017 for the Spanish cohort). In females, the AA genotype was significantly associated with lower FVC (p = 0.0082) and V alv (p = 0.022). In males, the haplotype CA at -20 and -6 in AGT was also strongly associated with reduced diffusing capacity in both cohorts. Conclusions: This study is the first to demonstrate an association of AGT polymorphisms (-20A > C and -6G > A) with lower measures of pulmonary function in IPF. It is also the first to relate the effect of gender in lung fibrosis with polymorphisms in AGT. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.


Onetti Y.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | Meirelles T.,University of Barcelona | Dantas A.P.,Institute Clinic del Torax | Schroder K.,Goethe University Frankfurt | And 4 more authors.
American Journal of Physiology - Heart and Circulatory Physiology | Year: 2016

Marfan syndrome (MFS) is a connective tissue disorder that is often associated with the fibrillin-1 (Fbn1) gene mutation and characterized by cardiovascular alterations, predominantly ascending aortic aneurysms. Although neurovascular complications are uncommon in MFS, the improvement in Marfan patients' life expectancy is revealing other secondary alterations, potentially including neurovascular disorders. However, little is known about small-vessel pathophysiology in MFS. MFS is associated with hyperactivated transforming growth factor (TGF)-β signaling, which among numerous other downstream effectors, induces the NADPH oxidase 4 (Nox4) isoform of NADPH oxidase, a strong enzymatic source of H2O2. We hypothesized that MFS induces middle cerebral artery (MCA) alterations and that Nox4 contributes to them. MCA properties from 3-, 6-, or 9-mo-old Marfan (Fbn1C1039G/+) mice were compared with those from age/sex-matched wild-type littermates. At 6 mo, Marfan compared with wild-type mice developed higher MCA wall/lumen (wild-type: 0.081 ± 0.004; Marfan: 0.093 ± 0.002; 60 mmHg; P < 0.05), coupled with increased reactive oxygen species production, TGF-β, and Nox4 expression. However, wall stiffness and myogenic autoregulation did not change. To investigate the influence of Nox4 on cerebrovascular properties, we generated Marfan mice with Nox4 deficiency (Nox4−/−). Strikingly, Nox4 deletion in Marfan mice aggravated MCA wall thickening (cross-sectional area; Marfan: 6,660 ± 363 μm2; Marfan Nox4−/−: 8,795 ± 824 μm2; 60 mmHg; P < 0.05), accompanied by decreased TGF-β expression and increased collagen deposition and Nox1 expression. These findings provide the first evidence that Nox4 mitigates cerebral artery structural changes in a murine model of MFS. © 2016 the American Physiological Society.


Jimenez-Altayo F.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | Onetti Y.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | Heras M.,Institute Clinic Del Torax | Dantas A.P.,Institute Clinic Del Torax | Vila E.,Autonomous University of Barcelona
Age | Year: 2013

The influence of two known cardiovascular risk factors, aging and consumption of a high-fat diet, on vascular mesenteric artery reactivity was examined in a mouse model of accelerated senescence (SAM). Five-month-old SAM prone (SAMP8) and resistant (SAMR1) female mice were fed a Western-type high-fat diet (WD; 8 weeks). Mesenteric arteries were dissected, and vascular reactivity, protein and messenger RNA expression, superoxide anion (O2 ?) and hydrogen peroxide formation were evaluated by wire myography, immunofluorescence, RT-qPCR, ethidium fluorescence and ferric-xylenol orange, respectively. Contraction to KCl and relaxation to acetylcholine remained unchanged irrespective of senescence and diet. Although similar contractions to phenylephrine were observed in SAMR1 and SAMP8, accelerated senescence was associated with decreased eNOS and nNOS and increased O2 ? synthesis. Senescencerelated alterations were compensated, at least partly, by the contribution of NO derived from iNOS and the enhanced endogenous antioxidant capacity of superoxide dismutase 1 to maintain vasoconstriction. Administration of a WD induced qualitatively different alterations in phenylephrine contractions of mesenteric arteries from SAMR1 and SAMP8. SAMR1 showed increased contractions partly as a result of decreased NO availability generated by decreased eNOS and nNOS and enhanced O2 ? formation. In contrast, WD feeding in SAMP8 resulted in reduced contractions due to, at least in part, the increased functional participation of iNOS-derived NO. In conclusion, senescence-dependent intrinsic alterations during early stages of vascular senescence may promote vascular adaptation and predispose to further changes in response to high-fat intake, which may lead to the progression of aging-related cardiovascular disease, whereas young subjects lack the capacity for this adaptation. © American Aging Association 2012.


Onetti Y.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | Jimenez-Altayo F.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | Heras M.,Institute Clinic del Torax | Vila E.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | Dantas A.P.,Institute Clinic del Torax
Experimental Gerontology | Year: 2013

The effects of high-fat diet ingestion on senescence-induced modulation of contractile responses to phenylephrine (Phe) were determined in aortas of senescence-accelerated (SAMP8) and non-senescent (SAMR1) mice fed (8weeks) a Western-type high-fat diet (WD). Increased levels of senescence-associated β-galactosidase staining were found in aortas of SAMP8 and SAMR1 with WD. In SAMR1, WD did not modify Phe contraction in spite of inducing major changes in the mechanisms of regulation of contractile responses. Although WD increased NAD(P)H-oxidase-derived O2- and augmented peroxynitrite formation, we found an increase of inducible NOS (iNOS)-derived NO production which may contribute to maintain Phe contraction in SAMR1 WD. On SAMP8, WD significantly decreased Phe-induced contractions when compared with SAMP8 under normal chow. This response was not dependent on changes of NOS expression, but rather as consequence of increased antioxidant capacity by superoxide dismutase (SOD1). A similar constrictor influence from cyclooxygenase (COX) pathway on Phe responses was found in SAMR1 and SAMP8 ND. However, WD removed that influence on SAMR1, and produced a switch in the balance from a vasoconstrictor to a vasodilator component in SAMP8. These results were associated to the increased COX-2 expression, suggesting that a COX-2-derived vasodilator prostaglandin may contribute to the vascular adaptations after WD intake. Taken together, our data suggest that WD plays a detrimental role in the vasculature of non-senescent mice by increasing pro-inflammatory (iNOS) and pro-oxidative signaling pathways and may contribute to increase vascular senescence. In senescent vessels, however, WD triggers different intrinsic compensatory alterations which include increase of antioxidant activity by SOD1 and vasodilator prostaglandin production via COX-2. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.


Caracuel L.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | Jimenez-Altayo F.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | Romo M.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | Marquez-Martin A.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | And 2 more authors.
Frontiers in Physiology | Year: 2012

Mesenteric ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) is associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. We studied the effect of mesenteric I/R on structural and mechanical properties of rat mesenteric resistance artery (MRA) that, once disrupted, might impact the outcome of this devastating clinical condition. Superior mesenteric artery from Wistar-Kyoto rats was occluded (90min) and reperfused (24h). The effect of tezosentan, a dual endothelin (ET)-receptor antagonist, was studied in ischemic (IO) and sham-operated (SO) animals. MRA structure and mechanics were assessed by pressure myography. Nuclei distribution, elastin content and organization, collagen I/III and ET-1 expression, ET-1 plasma levels, superoxide anion (O 2 .-) production, and mRNA levels of NAD(P)H-oxidase subunits were measured. To assess ET-1 effects on 02~ production, MRA from non-operated rats were incubated in culture medium with ET-1. Mesenteric I/R increased MRA wall thickness (P<0.05) and cross-sectional area (P < 0.05) but decreased wall stiffness (P < 0.05). Arterial remodeling was paralleled by enhancement of: (i) collagen I/III expression (P<0.01), ET-1 expression (P<0.05), and O 2 .- formation (P<0.01) in the vessel wall; (ii) number of internal elastic lamina (IEL) fenestrae (P<0.05); and (iii) plasma levels of ET-1 (P<0.05). Moreover, ET-1 increased O 2 .- (P<0.05) production in cultured MRA. Tezosentan prevented hyper-trophic remodeling and collagen I/III deposition, and enhanced O 2 .- production, but it did not affect the decreased wall stiffness after mesenteric I/R. These results indicate that 90min occlusion/24h reperfusion induces hypertrophic remodeling of MRA linked to ET-1-mediated increase of collagen and O 2 .-. Decreased stiffness may be associated with increased number of IEL fenestrae. The resulting MRA remodeling, initially adaptive, might become maladaptive contributing to the pathology and poor outcome of mesenteric I/R, and might be a valuable treatment target for mesenteric I/R. © 2012 Caracuel, Jiménez- Altayó, Romo, Márquez-Martín, Dantas and Vila.

Loading Institute Clinic del Torax collaborators
Loading Institute Clinic del Torax collaborators