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Toulouse, France

Poirot M.,Institute Claudius Regaud
International Journal of Developmental Biology | Year: 2011

V. Craig Jordan is a pioneer in the molecular pharmacology and therapeutics of breast cancer. As a teenager, he wanted to develop drugs to treat cancer, but at the time in the 1960s, this was unfashionable. Nevertheless, he saw an opportunity and through his mentors, trained himself to re-invent a failed "morning-after pill" to become tamoxifen, the gold standard for the treatment and prevention of breast cancer. It is estimated that at least a million women worldwide are alive today because of the clinical application of Jordan's laboratory research. Throughout his career, he has always looked at "the good, the bad and the ugly" of tamoxifen. He was the first to raise concerns about the possibility of tamoxifen increasing endometrial cancer. He described selective estrogen receptor modulation (SERM) and he was the first to describe both the bone protective effects and the breast chemopreventive effects of raloxifene. Raloxifene did not increase endometrial cancer and is now used to prevent breast cancer and osteoporosis. The scientific strategy he introduced of using long term therapy for treatment and prevention caused him to study acquired drug resistance to SERMs. He made the paradoxical discovery that physiological estrogen can be used to treat and to prevent breast cancer once exhaustive antihormone resistance develops. His philosophy for his four decades of discovery has been to use the conversation between the laboratory and the clinic to improve women's health. © 2011 UBC Press. Source


Cortes J.,University of Barcelona | Roche H.,Institute Claudius Regaud
Cancer Treatment Reviews | Year: 2012

The treatment of metastatic breast cancer (MBC) is essentially palliative and should be based on hormone therapy or optimized chemotherapy designed to delay disease progression and maximize survival with good quality of life. Novel chemotherapeutic agents introduced in the 1990s include the taxanes (notably docetaxel), which are among the most potent of current anticancer drugs. Current research is also focusing on molecular targeted agents including those against the HER family of transmembrane receptors and vascular endothelial growth factor. Optimal effects are obtained when these compounds are used in combination with chemotherapy, as shown in preclinical models and more recently in clinical trials. Results of a large randomized trial have demonstrated a significant survival advantage for trastuzumab plus docetaxel compared with docetaxel monotherapy. Docetaxel plus bevacizumab combinations have recently been shown to significantly improve progression-free survival and objective response rate compared with docetaxel monotherapy. Overall, docetaxel in combination with novel targeted agents in MBC appears to be highly active in patients with MBC, and such combinations represent promising treatment regimens for clinical investigation. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Record M.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Record M.,Institute Claudius Regaud | Record M.,University Paul Sabatier
Placenta | Year: 2014

Exosomes are nanovesicles released from viable cells and have attracted increasing interest due to their role in intercellular communication and biological functions. More recently exosomes have been shown to be released by trophoblasts and to carry molecules involved in placental physiology. This involves proteins such as fibronectin, syncytin, Wnt/βcatenin-related molecules, galectin-3, and HLA-G, but also bioactive lipids such as the immunosuppressive PGE2, the PPARγ ligand 15d-PGJ2, or microRNAs that appear as immunomodulators in pregnancy and are able to confer viral resistance. Exosome trafficking within the placental micro-environment potentially links these nanovesicles to the organization of the placental interface, fetal tolerance, viral protection, and possibly mother-fetus communication. Because of the presence of immunocompetent exosomes in breast-milk, they appear as an essential component in reproduction. Several aspects of the "exosome pathway" are described in the review, from general aspects related to their origin, their characteristics and their ability to vectorize material between cells, to more specific functions involved in placental physiology such as their putative role in triggering cell fusion required for syncytiotrophoblast formation. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Despite the recent publication of international guidelines, post-operative nausea and vomiting (PONV) remains unacceptably frequent. Some authors have suggested a shift from the recommended risk-adaptive approach to ultra-liberal administration of antiemetics irrespective of the patient's risk of PONV. We review briefly the arguments in favour of measured utilisation of a simplified risk score to predict PONV. © 2011 Copyright European Society of Anaesthesiology. Source


Roche H.,Institute Claudius Regaud | Vahdat L.T.,Weill Cornell Breast Cancer Center
Annals of Oncology | Year: 2011

Increasing use of standard chemotherapy, especially anthracycline- and taxane-based therapies, in early-stage breast cancer has led to a corresponding increase in heavily pretreated and/or treatment-resistant cases of metastatic breast cancer (MBC). Thus, second and later lines of MBC therapy frequently involve the clinically challenging picture of progressive disease and limited treatment options. While several prognostic factors have been identified to aid treatment selection in MBC patients, treatment is palliative and aimed at prolonging survival, controlling symptoms, and maximizing patients' quality of life. No globally accepted standard exists for meeting these goals, and treatment patterns vary according to region. The list of available agents for the treatment of MBC is increasing with newer chemotherapeutic agents and molecular-targeted therapies. Within recent years, several single-agent and combination chemotherapy regimens have been shown to improve progression-free survival and reduce symptoms of disease in clinical studies in patients with resistant and/or heavily pretreated MBC. However, at present, the demonstrated benefits of these medical interventions have usually not included extension of overall survival times. It is hoped that in the near future, ongoing refinements to treatment approaches used in second-line settings and beyond will allow meaningful improvements in symptom control and survival in MBC. © The Author 2010. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights reserved. Source

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