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Emanuelli F.,Research and Innovation Center | Lorenzi S.,Research and Innovation Center | Grzeskowiak L.,Research and Innovation Center | Catalano V.,Research and Innovation Center | And 8 more authors.
BMC Plant Biology | Year: 2013

Background: The economic importance of grapevine has driven significant efforts in genomics to accelerate the exploitation of Vitis resources for development of new cultivars. However, although a large number of clonally propagated accessions are maintained in grape germplasm collections worldwide, their use for crop improvement is limited by the scarcity of information on genetic diversity, population structure and proper phenotypic assessment. The identification of representative and manageable subset of accessions would facilitate access to the diversity available in large collections. A genome-wide germplasm characterization using molecular markers can offer reliable tools for adjusting the quality and representativeness of such core samples.Results: We investigated patterns of molecular diversity at 22 common microsatellite loci and 384 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 2273 accessions of domesticated grapevine V. vinifera ssp. sativa, its wild relative V. vinifera ssp. sylvestris, interspecific hybrid cultivars and rootstocks. Despite the large number of putative duplicates and extensive clonal relationships among the accessions, we observed high level of genetic variation. In the total germplasm collection the average genetic diversity, as quantified by the expected heterozygosity, was higher for SSR loci (0.81) than for SNPs (0.34). The analysis of the genetic structure in the grape germplasm collection revealed several levels of stratification. The primary division was between accessions of V. vinifera and non-vinifera, followed by the distinction between wild and domesticated grapevine. Intra-specific subgroups were detected within cultivated grapevine representing different eco-geographic groups. The comparison of a phenological core collection and genetic core collections showed that the latter retained more genetic diversity, while maintaining a similar phenotypic variability.Conclusions: The comprehensive molecular characterization of our grape germplasm collection contributes to the knowledge about levels and distribution of genetic diversity in the existing resources of Vitis and provides insights into genetic subdivision within the European germplasm. Genotypic and phenotypic information compared in this study may efficiently guide further exploration of this diversity for facilitating its practical use. © 2013 Emanuelli et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source


Diaz-Riquelme J.,University of Western Ontario | Diaz-Riquelme J.,Institute Ciencias Of La Vid Y Del Vino | Zhurov V.,University of Western Ontario | Rioja C.,University of Western Ontario | And 14 more authors.
BMC Genomics | Year: 2016

Background: The two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, is an extreme generalist plant pest. Even though mites can feed on many plant species, local mite populations form host races that do not perform equally well on all potential hosts. An acquisition of the ability to evade plant defenses is fundamental for mite's ability to use a particular plant as a host. Thus, understanding the interactions between the plant and mites with different host adaptation status allows the identification of functional plant defenses and ways mites can evolve to avoid them. Results: The grapevine genome-wide transcriptional responses to spider mite strains that are non-adapted and adapted to grapevine as a host were examined. Comparative transcriptome analysis of grapevine responses to these mite strains identified the existence of weak responses induced by the feeding of the non-adapted strain. In contrast, strong but ineffective induced defenses were triggered upon feeding of the adapted strain. A comparative meta-analysis of Arabidopsis, tomato and grapevine responses to mite feeding identified a core of 36 highly conserved genes involved in the perception, regulation and metabolism that were commonly induced in all three species by mite herbivory. Conclusions: This study describes the genome-wide grapevine transcriptional responses to herbivory of mite strains that differ in their ability to use grapevine as a host. It raises hypotheses whose testing will lead to our understanding of grapevine defenses and mite adaptations to them. © 2016 Díaz-Riquelme et al. Source


Diaz-Riquelme J.,University of Western Ontario | Zhurov V.,University of Western Ontario | Rioja C.,University of Western Ontario | Perez-Moreno I.,University of La Rioja | And 8 more authors.
BMC Genomics | Year: 2016

Background: The two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, is an extreme generalist plant pest. Even though mites can feed on many plant species, local mite populations form host races that do not perform equally well on all potential hosts. An acquisition of the ability to evade plant defenses is fundamental for mite's ability to use a particular plant as a host. Thus, understanding the interactions between the plant and mites with different host adaptation status allows the identification of functional plant defenses and ways mites can evolve to avoid them. Results: The grapevine genome-wide transcriptional responses to spider mite strains that are non-adapted and adapted to grapevine as a host were examined. Comparative transcriptome analysis of grapevine responses to these mite strains identified the existence of weak responses induced by the feeding of the non-adapted strain. In contrast, strong but ineffective induced defenses were triggered upon feeding of the adapted strain. A comparative meta-analysis of Arabidopsis, tomato and grapevine responses to mite feeding identified a core of 36 highly conserved genes involved in the perception, regulation and metabolism that were commonly induced in all three species by mite herbivory. Conclusions: This study describes the genome-wide grapevine transcriptional responses to herbivory of mite strains that differ in their ability to use grapevine as a host. It raises hypotheses whose testing will lead to our understanding of grapevine defenses and mite adaptations to them. © 2016 Díaz-Riquelme et al. Source


Grant O.M.,National University of Ireland | Grant O.M.,University College Dublin | Ochagavia H.,Institute Ciencias Of La Vid Y Del Vino | Baluja J.,Institute Ciencias Of La Vid Y Del Vino | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Horticultural Science and Biotechnology | Year: 2016

Thermal imaging can detect variation in stomatal conductance and therefore spatial variation in the water status of grapevine. Temporal variation can also be assessed, using indices that relate canopy temperature to reference temperatures, but, as yet, there is no standard approach to obtain these reference values. Also, the potential of above-canopy imaging is uncertain for vine rows with mainly vertically oriented leaves. Thermal images of the side (vertical leaves) and top (horizontal leaves) of ‘Tempranillo’ (Vitis vinifera L.) grapevine rows were captured on different dates and in different plots in a vineyard in the Rioja, Spain. Reference temperatures were determined separately (i) as the temperature of artificial leaves placed in the grapevine canopy, or (ii) by calculation from the leaf energy budget. With respect to imaging the side of grapevine rows, the two approaches exhibited similar potential to indicate variation in stomatal conductance or stem water potential within a single date and time of day. Over different dates (implying temporal as well as spatial variability) and both sides of the grapevines, the use of the artificial surfaces resulted in stronger correlations between thermal indices and physiological variables than the application of energy budget models. The use of such reference surfaces would allow a standardised approach to thermography. Imaging the top of rows produced some highly significant correlations between thermal indices and physiological variables. Modified artificial leaves could be developed to standardise the determination of reference temperatures, at the same spatial resolution as the leaves of interest. That imaging the top of grapevine canopies provides useful information on water status suggests that aerial imaging could be used to assess spatial variation in water status across entire vineyards. © 2015 Taylor & Francis. Source


Yunta F.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Martin I.,Institute Ciencias Of La Vid Y Del Vino | Lucena J.J.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Garate A.,Autonomous University of Madrid
Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis | Year: 2013

Iron (Fe) chlorosis is a widespread nutritional disorder in grapevine, particularly in vineyards developed on calcareous soils. Despite the effective application of highly efficient Fe chelates such as Fe-ethylenediamine di-o-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (EDDHA) to the soil to solve the problem, the cost of the treatments and the loss of effectiveness of the chelate in the soil in rainfed crops limit their use. An alternative could be the utilization of Fe fertilizers directly supplied through foliar spray. Two Fe chelates [Fe-ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA) and Fe-ethylenediamine disuccinic acid (EDDS)], an Fe complex (Fe-lignosulfonate), and an Fe salt (Fe-sulfate) were foliarly applied to mature Tempranillo tinto (Vitis vinifera L.), grown on a soil with a high active lime (most reactive calcium carbonate phase in soils) content (92.5 g kg-1 at 30-60 cm deep), and compared to an untreated control. Three shoots per vine and five vines per treatment were selected. One hundred mL of each Fe treatment (5 mM) were sprayed on mature leaves (treated), and young leaves (covered) were covered so Fe translocation could be studied. Treatments were repeated once after 2 weeks. Leaf blades were sampled before the first spray application and at the end of the assay, 4 weeks later, and 2 weeks after the second spray application. Micronutrient content [(Fe, manganese (Mn), copper (Cu), and zinc (Zn)] in leaf blades was determined and Fe/Mn ratio was calculated as a Fe nutrition index. Leaf chlorophyll content was measured weekly using a noninvasive Minolta SPAD chlorophyll meter. As expected, all Fe treatments resulted in greater leaf Fe concentration than in the untreated control; however, leaves sprayed with Fe-EDTA and Fe-sulfate showed the greatest Fe concentration. As consequence, the largest Fe/Mn ratio was found for Fe-EDTA and Fe-sulfate treatments, although no differences with Fe-EDDS treatment were found. Leaves sprayed with Fe-EDTA chelate showed not only the greatest SPAD readings at the end of the field experiment but also the greatest SPAD readings when measured on covered leaves from the 15th day after treatment application when compared to untreated control. Covered leaves from all vines sprayed with Fe treatments showed greater Fe concentrations than untreated control but only the Fe/Mn ratio for Fe-EDTA was significantly greater than that of untreated control. The inconsistency between total Fe concentration from the sprayed leaves and SPAD readings in both sprayed and covered leaves suggests that the proposed methodology is valid for assessing the Fe translocation rate from mature to young leaves when foliar fertilization was applied. © 2013 Copyright Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. Source

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