Tovar-Sanchez A.,CSIC - Mediterranean Institute for Advanced Studies |
Sanchez-Quiles D.,CSIC - Mediterranean Institute for Advanced Studies |
Basterretxea G.,CSIC - Mediterranean Institute for Advanced Studies |
Benede J.L.,University of Valencia |
And 4 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013
A growing awareness of the risks associated with skin exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation over the past decades has led to increased use of sunscreen cosmetic products leading the introduction of new chemical compounds in the marine environment. Although coastal tourism and recreation are the largest and most rapidly growing activities in the world, the evaluation of sunscreen as source of chemicals to the coastal marine system has not been addressed. Concentrations of chemical UV filters included in the formulation of sunscreens, such as benzophehone 3 (BZ-3), 4-methylbenzylidene camphor (4-MBC), TiO2 and ZnO, are detected in nearshore waters with variable concentrations along the day and mainly concentrated in the surface microlayer (i.e. 53.6-577.5 ng L-1 BZ-3; 51.4-113.4 ng L-1 4-MBC; 6.9-37.6 μg L-1 Ti; 1.0-3.3 μg L-1 Zn). The presence of these compounds in seawater suggests relevant effects on phytoplankton. Indeed, we provide evidences of the negative effect of sunblocks on the growth of the commonly found marine diatom Chaetoceros gracilis (mean EC50 = 125±71 mg L-1). Dissolution of sunscreens in seawater also releases inorganic nutrients (N, P and Si forms) that can fuel algal growth. In particular, PO4 3- is released by these products in notable amounts (up to 17 μmol PO4 3- g-1). We conservatively estimate an increase of up to 100% background PO4 3- concentrations (0.12 μmol L-1 over a background level of 0.06 μmol L-1) in nearshore waters during low water renewal conditions in a populated beach in Majorca island. Our results show that sunscreen products are a significant source of organic and inorganic chemicals that reach the sea with potential ecological consequences on the coastal marine ecosystem. © 2013 Tovar-Sánchez et al.