Institute Ciencias Geologicas

Montevideo, Uruguay

Institute Ciencias Geologicas

Montevideo, Uruguay
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Warren L.V.,São Paulo State University | Quaglio F.,Federal University of Uberlandia | Simoes M.G.,São Paulo State University | Gaucher C.,Institute Ciencias Geologicas | And 5 more authors.
Precambrian Research | Year: 2017

The intriguing Ediacaran fossil Namacalathus is described from limestones of the Tagatiya Guazú Formation, Itapucumi Group, Paraguay. This is the fifth occurrence of the genus in the Ediacaran geological record. The Paraguayan Namacalathus specimens are preserved as partially complete spheroidal cups with an opening at the top and thin walled stems. The remains of this soft-calcified globe-shaped organism occur as sparse disarticulated parautochthonous fragments within bioclastic deposits dominated by Cloudina shells with subordinate Corumbella fragments. The co-occurrence of these three skeletal metazoan species in the same environmental context attests that the diversity of the Paraguayan accumulations is ecologically comparable to the typical skeletal assemblage of the Nama Group. The discovery of new samples of Namacalathus in the Itapucumi Group also indicates that this genus presented a broader paleobiogeographic distribution than previously thought and, in the same way as Cloudina, it represents a low latitude, shallow water metazoan of the Ediacaran Gondwana. © 2017 Elsevier B.V.

Muzio R.,Institute Ciencias Geologicas | Peel E.,Institute Ciencias Geologicas | Porta N.,PEDECIBA area Geociencias | Scaglia F.,PEDECIBA area Geociencias
Journal of South American Earth Sciences | Year: 2017

The Mesozoic mafic intrusions in Uruguay comprise dykes and sills grouped as the Cuaró Formation. They are mainly distributed along the southern portion of the Paraná basin, and they are considered part of the Paraná Magmatic Province. They crop out as typically grey moderately altered dykes and sills, characterized by glomero-porphyritic textures, with clusters of plagioclase and occasional clinopyroxene, set in a fine-grained groundmass composed by labradorite, augite and titaniferous magnetite. We present new lithogeochemical results particularly regarding Sr – Nd isotopes to discuss petrogenetic processes. All samples have high 87Sr/86Sr (0.71160–0.70781) and low 143Nd/144Nd ratios (0.512274–0.512585), with epsilon Nd(0) between −4.37 and −7.1. TDM model ages, calculated for 130 Ma, are composed of approximately 1.41–1.61 Ga, except for one dyke with 1.29 Ga. The isotopic data allow their classification as derived from the Gramado magma-type. Trace element geochemistry and isotopic data indicate that the primary magma would be a product of an enriched mantle source with a strong crustal signature, probably due to inherited subduction components and/or assimilation processes. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd

Sanchez Bettucci L.,Institute Ciencias Geologicas | Peel E.,University of Sao Paulo | Oyhantcabal P.,Institute Ciencias Geologicas
International Geology Review | Year: 2010

The main Precambrian tectonic units of Uruguay include the Piedra Alta tectonostratigraphic terrane (PATT) and Nico Perez tectonostratigraphic terrane (NPTT), separated by the Sarandi del Yi high-strain zone. Both terranes are well exposed in the Rio de La Plata craton (RPC). Although these tectonic units are geographically small, they record a wide span of geologic time. Therefore improved geological knowledge of this area provides a fuller understanding of the evolution of the core of South America. The PATT is constituted by low- to medium-grade metamorphic belts (ca. 2.1 Ga); its petrotectonic associations such as metavolcanic units, conglomerates, banded iron formations, and turbiditic deposits suggest a back-arc or a trench-basin setting. Also in the PATT, a late to post-orogenic, arc-related layered mafic complex (2.3-1.9 Ga), followed by A-type granites (2.08 Ga), and finally a taphrogenic mafic dike swarm (1.78 Ga) occur. The less thoroughly studied NPTT consists of Palaeoproterozoic high-grade metamorphic sequences (ca. 2.2 Ga), mylonites and postorogenic and rapakivi granites (1.75 Ga). The Brasiliano-Pan African orogeny affected this terrane. Neoproterozoic cover occurs in both tectonostratigraphic terranes, but is more developed in the NPTT. Over the past 15 years, new isotopic studies have improved our recognition of different tectonic events and associated processes, such as reactivation of shear zones and fluids circulation. Transamazonian and Statherian tectonic events were recognized in the RPC. Based on magmatism, deformation, basin development and metamorphism, we propose a scheme for the Precambrian tectonic evolution of Uruguay, which is summarized in the first Palaeoproterozoic tectonic map of the Rio de La Plata craton.

Sanchez Bettucci L.,Institute Ciencias Geologicas | Peel E.,Institute Ciencias Geologicas | Peel E.,University of Sao Paulo | Masquelin H.,Institute Ciencias Geologicas
International Geology Review | Year: 2010

Neoproterozoic-lower Palaeozoic successions in the Brasiliano fold belts are described and a brief synthesis of these terranes is presented in order to erect a tectonic framework for this region. Tectonic events that occurred around the Rio de La Plata craton were diachronous and reflected successive stages of the Brasiliano orogenic cycle. They took place in mobile belts that constituted part of the Gondwana supercontinent. The most thoroughly investigated Neoproterozoic sections are located in the eastern and southeastern regions of Uruguay. The Dom Feliciano Belt shows a tectonic evolution from back-arc to foreland basin characterized by fold-and-thrust, thick-skinned belts developed during the Brasiliano/Pan-African orogenic cycle. The most conspicuous features were late-tectonic high-K calc-alkaline granitoids, HT-LP metamorphism, significant displacements along shear zones, and post-tectonic granitoids. The final stage was characterized by post-collisional basins (molassic sequences) and extensional magmatism related to a phase of crustal stretching. Several lithotectonic units are present as basement inliers in the Dom Feliciano Belt: these include a low-to-medium metamorphic grade sequence (the Zanja del Tigre Formation), granitoids and gneisses (the Campanero Unit), high-grade basement of the Cerro Olivo Complex (Palaeoproterozoic or Neoproterozoic), and a low-metamorphic grade orogenic belt (the Rocha Formation). This paper provides a simplified tectonic map of eastern Uruguay, which we use to describe tectonic evolution from Precambrian to early Palaeozoic time.

Soto M.,Exploracion y Produccion | Morales E.,Exploracion y Produccion | Veroslavsky G.,Institute Ciencias Geologicas | de Santa Ana H.,Exploracion y Produccion | And 2 more authors.
Marine and Petroleum Geology | Year: 2011

The Uruguayan continental margin comprises three sedimentary basins: the Punta del Este, Pelotas and Oriental del Plata basins, the genesis of which is related to the break-up of Gondwana and the opening of the Atlantic Ocean. Herein the continental margin of Uruguay is studied on the basis of 2D multichannel reflection seismic data, as well as gravity and magnetic surveys. As is typical of South Atlantic margins, the Uruguayan continental margin is of the volcanic rifted type. Large wedges of seaward-dipping reflectors (SDRs) are clearly recognizable in seismic sections. SDRs, flat-lying basalt flows, and a high-velocity lower crust (HVLC) form part of the transitional crust. The SDR sequence (subdivided into two wedges) has a maximum width of 85 km and is not continuous parallel to the margin, but is interrupted at the central portion of the Uruguayan margin. The oceanic crust is highly dissected by faults, which affect post-rift sediments. A depocenter over oceanic crust is reported (deepwater Pelotas Basin), and volcanic cones are observed in a few sections. The structure of continental crust-SDRs-flat flows-oceanic crust is reflected in the magnetic anomaly map. The positive free-air gravity anomaly is related to the shelf-break, while the most prominent positive magnetic anomaly is undoubtedly correlated to the landward edge of the SDR sequence. Given the attenuation, interruption and/or sinistral displacement of several features (most notably SDR sequence, magnetic anomalies and depocenters), we recognize a system of NW-SE trending transfer faults, here named Río de la Plata Transfer System (RPTS). Two tectono-structural segments separated by the RPTS can therefore be recognized in the Uruguayan continental margin: Segment I to the south and Segment II to the north. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Pineiro G.,Institute Ciencias Geologicas | Ramos A.,Institute Ciencias Geologicas | Goso C.,Institute Ciencias Geologicas | Scarabino F.,Museo Nacional de Historia Natural | Laurin M.,CNRS Center for Research on Palaeobiodiversity and Palaeoenvironments
Acta Palaeontologica Polonica | Year: 2012

The environmental characterization of the Lower Permian mesosaur-bearing strata of the Mangrullo Formation (Paraná Basin, northeastern Uruguay) has been controversial. Historically, marine conditions were suggested for this unit, despite the absence of any normal marine fossils. More recently, some authors have argued for freshwater to brackish settings, inferring fluctuating environmental conditions, which would have generated abrupt changes in the composition of the communities. Mesosaurs are the only tetrapods found in this unit, and they colonized the basin at the time of highest isolation, and apparently increased salinity, coincident with a gradual global rise in aridity. An assemblage of extremely low diversity (the "mesosaur community") developed, with mesosaur reptiles, pygocephalomorph crustaceans, and the vermiform producers of the trace fossil Chondrites as the dominant components. This community may have existed under temporary hypersaline, lagoon-like conditions, as suggested by ecological, anatomical and physiological attributes of its member taxa. This interpretation is supported by sedimentological and mineralogical features of the enclosing rocks, also seen in the correlative Brazilian Iratí and South African Whitehill formations. In the Uruguayan deposits, as well as in their Brazilian correlatives, relatively close volcanic events affected the basin. This particular environment, where bottom waters were depleted of oxygen and hypersaline, retarded decay of the carcasses, and precluded the development of bioturbating organism, and together with bacterial sealing, favoured exquisite preservation of the fossils, including soft tissues. This leads us to consider the fossil-bearing strata of the Mangrullo Formation as a Konservat-Lagerstätte, the oldest known for South America.

PubMed | University of the Republic of Uruguay, Institute Ciencias Geologicas and Laboratorio Of Sistematica E Historia Natural Of Vertebrados
Type: | Journal: PeerJ | Year: 2016

The hypotheses about the origin of the primitive amniotic tarsus are very speculative. Early studies argued that the origin of the astragalus, one of the largest proximal bones in the tarsus of basal amniotes, was produced by either the fusion of two, three, or even four of the original tarsal bones, the intermedium, the tibiale and the proximal centralia (c4 and c3), or that the intermedium alone transforms into the primitive astragalus. More recent studies have shown that the structure of the tarsus in Captorhinus supports the former hypothesis about a fusion of the intermedium, the tibiale, the proximal centrale (c4) and eventually c3, producing a purportedly multipartite structure of the amniotic astragalus, but the issue remained contentious. Very well preserved tarsi of the Early Permian aquatic amniote Mesosaurus tenuidens Gervais, 1864-1865, which represent the most complete ontogenetic succession known for a basal amniote (the other exceptional one is provided by the Late Permian diapsid Hovasaurus boulei Piveteau, 1926), suggest that there is more than one ossification center for the astragalus and that these fuse during late embryonic stages or maybe early after birth. A non-hatched Mesosaurus in an advanced stage of development shows that the tarsus is represented by a single bone, most probably the astragalus, which seems to be formed by the suturing of three bones, here interpreted as being the intermedium, the tibiale, probably already integrated to the c4 in an earlier stage of the development, and the c3. An amniote-like tarsal structure is observed in very basal Carboniferous and Permian tetrapods such as Proterogyrinus, Gephyrostegus, the diadectids Diadectes and Orobates, some microsaurs like Tuditanus and Pantylus and possibly Westlothiana, taxa that were all considered as true amniotes in their original descriptions. Therefore, the structure of the amniotic tarsus, including the configuration of the proximal series formed by the astragalus and the calcaneum, typically a pair of enlarged bones, could have been established well before the first recognized amniote walked on Earth. Accordingly, the tarsus of these taxa does not constitute specialized convergences that appeared in unrelated groups, they might be instead, part of a transformation series that involves taxa closely related to the early amniotes as some hypotheses have suggested.

Martinez Blanco X.,Institute Ciencias Geologicas | Tejera L.,Institute Ciencias Geologicas | Beri A.,Institute Ciencias Geologicas
Aerobiologia | Year: 2015

In Uruguay, aeromycological studies are restricted to a gravimetric analysis performed from December 1942 to March 1944 in Montevideo where spores of Pucciniaceae, Alternaria and Helminthosporium were the only specimens identified. Daily monitoring of airborne fungal spores was carried out for the first time in Montevideo, from April 2012 to March 2014, using a Rotorod sampler in order to evaluate the seasonal variation and influence of meteorological parameters. A total of 548,309.68 spores/m3 were recorded which belong to anamorphs of Higher Fungi (69.18 %), Phyla Ascomycota (12.62 %), Basidiomycota (8.01 %), Oomycota (0.37 %) and Myxomycota (0.06 %). Airborne spores occurred in Montevideo throughout the whole year. However, a seasonal pattern was revealed, with the highest concentrations recorded in autumn and summer. The most abundant spore types were Cladosporium (53.22 %), Alternaria (6.62 %), Didymella Group (5.86 %), Leptosphaeria Group (4.37 %) and Coprinus (4.3 %). Temperature appeared to be the most influential meteorological factor correlating significantly and positively with total spore, Cladosporium, Alternaria and Didymella Group abundance. Relative humidity influenced positively total spore, Cladosporium and Didymella Group concentrations while a weak negative association was obtained for Alternaria. Wind speed correlated negatively with total spore, Cladosporium, Alternaria and Didymella Group. Precipitation showed a negative influence on Alternaria, while positive correlations were observed for Didymella Group. For the first time, fungal spores considered allergenic were recorded in Montevideo atmosphere and the risk of exposure would have been high from December to June. However, long-term sampling is needed to define seasonal prevalence patterns and the influence of meteorological conditions on spore abundance. © 2015 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht

Muzio R.,Institute Ciencias Geologicas | Scaglia F.,Institute Ciencias Geologicas | Masquelin H.,Institute Ciencias Geologicas
International Geology Review | Year: 2012

The Cuaró Formation is part of the sequence of Mesozoic mafic intrusions related to the Early Cretaceous break-up of Gondwana and represents the southernmost occurrences within the Paraná Magmatic Province in Uruguay. We present field data, petrography and lithogeochemical results regarding these dike swarms and sills that crop out in the southern extreme of the Paraná Basin. Dolerites and sills mainly exhibit glomeroporphyritic textures; the phenocrysts consist of plagioclase, clinopyroxene, relicts of olivine and titaniferous magnetite. Bulk-rock geochemical analyses allowed their classification as low-Ti subalkaline tholeiitic basalts and andesitic basalts. Trace element data indicated that the protoliths of these intrusions include the subcontinental lithospheric mantle, as is generally recognized for other Gondwana-related continental flood basalt provinces. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

Perea D.,Institute Ciencias Geologicas | Alberdi M.T.,CSIC - National Museum of Natural Sciences
Estudios Geologicos | Year: 2015

A large sample composed of relatively fragmentary remains of Gomphotheriidae was found in Uruguay. Belonging to this family there are materials assigned to Camacho Formation (Late Miocene), and to Pleistocene to Early Holocene units (Sopas, Libertad and Dolores formations). The Camacho and Sopas formations contain remains of indeterminate Gomphotheriidae, and the species Stegomastodon platensis is identified for the Libertad and Dolores formations. We think taxonomically suitable to support the opinion that all gomphotherids inhabitants of South American plains pertain to the genus Stegomastodon and to consider that species as the only representative of the genus in South America. © 2015 CSIC.

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